Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Feline panleucopenia virus disease

Synonym(s): Parvovirus, FPV, feline infectious enteritis, FIE

Contributor(s): Stephen Barr, Severine Tasker, Kim Willoughby

Introduction

  • Cause: feline panleucopenia virus is a parvovirus.
  • Signs: fetus - abortion, cerebellar hypoplasia; young kittens (neonates, <3 weeks old) - cerebellar hypoplasia, sudden death; older kittens/cats - enteritis, panleucopenia.
  • Diagnosis: signs, history, hematology, detection of FPV antigen in feces, histopathology.
  • Treatment: nursing care, IV fluids, antibiotics, metoclopramide Metoclopramide.
  • Prognosis: mortality 25-75%.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Feline panleucopenia virus Feline panleucopenia (parvo), a parvovirus.
  • In a few cases canine parvovirus strains (CPV ac, 2b and 2c) have been implicated.

Pathophysiology

  • Transmission by oronasal route    →   replicates in tissues of oropharynx   →    viremia   →   cytolytic replication in rapidly dividing cells:
    • Early fetus: teratologic changes leading to resorption, abortion or stillbirth.
    • Late fetus or neonate: external granular layer of cerebellum   →    cerebellar hypoplasia with incoordination and tremor.
    • Older kittens: epithelium of ileum and jejunum   →   disrupted epithelial lining   →    enteritis and diarrhea.
    • Cats: thymus, bone marrow, lymph nodes   →    leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia.

Epidemiology

  • FPV is a non-enveloped virus which is highly resistent in the environment where it can survive for many months.
  • Transmitted by direct contact or contact with contaminated environment (eg feed and water bowls, bedding, cages etc; aerosol transmission also possible.
  • Virus excreted in all body secretions/excretions.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

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