Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Injection-site associated sarcoma

Synonym(s): Post-vaccinational sarcoma, FISS

Contributor(s): Laura Garrett, Irene Rochlitz, David Scarff, Isabelle Desmas-Bazelle, Jane Dobson

Introduction

  • First reported early 1990's Suspected adverse reactions to vaccination.
  • Low incidence (relative to number of vaccinations performed).
  • Cause: tumor develops at site used for injection, most often vaccination (microchip implantation or injection of diverse array of drugs have also been reported as a cause).
  • Signs: firm soft tissue swelling usually between scapulae, locally aggressive.
  • Diagnosis: histopathology.
  • Treatment: surgical excision with wide margins. Adjuvant radiation therapy or chemotherapy may be indicated in some cases.
  • Prognosis: guarded.
    Print off the owner factsheet Feline injection site sarcoma Feline injection site sarcoma to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Related to post-injection inflammatory reactions. Vaccines that contain aluminum as an adjuvant have been proposed to be more likely to trigger a vaccine site reaction (although post-vaccinal sarcomas have also occured after non-aluminum adjuvanted vaccines and large epidemiologic studies did not show that aluminium-containing vaccines pose a greater risk).
  • Increase in risk with increasing number of vaccines administered at same location.
  • Both FeLV Feline leukemia virus disease and rabies Rabies vaccines have been associated with increased risk of developing sarcoma at site of vaccination Suspected adverse reactions to vaccination.
  • No single vaccine manufacturer or type of vaccine has been shown to pose a greater risk.
  • No particular vaccine practices (needle gauge, shaking vials, mixing vaccines in one syringe) have been shown to pose a greater risk.

Specific

  • Vaccination against rabies or FeLV.

Timecourse

  • Tumor develops from 4 weeks to 10 years after vaccination.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

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