Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Eye: papilledema

Contributor(s): Paul Gerding, David Gould, David Williams

Introduction

  • Non-inflammatory swelling of optic nerve head.
  • Very rare in cats.
  • Cause:
    • Usually associated with space occupying CNS lesion especially in region of optic chiasm, eg pituitary tumors, or other CNS tumors leading to increased intracranial pressure.
    • May also be associated with other causes of increased intracranial pressure, eg hydrocephalus.
    • May be associated with orbital space-occupying lesions that impinge on optic nerve.
    • Occasionally seen with severe ocular hypotomy, eg following globe rupture.
  • Signs: pupillary light responses and vision usually normal with papilledema (this is the key feature differentiating papilledema from optic neuritis). However, if papilledema is secondary to a tumor directly affecting the optic chiasm then blindness and reduced pupillary light responses may be present.
  • Electroretinogram normal.
  • Prognosis:
    • If untreated primary lesion    →   optic atrophy   →   blindness.
    • Underlying cause determines prognosis for animal.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Associated with space-occupying masses of orbit or optic nerve, ocular hypotony or increased CSF pressure.

Pathophysiology

  • Results from a stasis of axoplasmic flow at the lamina cribosa of the optic nerve head.
  • Edema of the optic nerve head occurs as a result of swelling of the axons in the prelaminar region.

Timecourse

  • Weeks to months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Barnett K C & Crispin S M (1998) Fundus. In: Feline Ophthalmology, an Atlas and Text. W B Saunders Co Ltd, London, p 165.


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