Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Esophagitis

Contributor(s): Ed Hall, Philip K Nicholls, James Simpson

Introduction

  • Causes: gastro-esophageal reflux during general anesthesia, hiatal hernia, calicivirus infection, foreign bodies, ingestion of caustic chemicals or hot food, persistent vomiting.
  • Signs: dysphagia, anorexia, excessive salivation and regurgitation.
  • Diagnosis: endoscopy.
  • Treatment: correct underlying cause, antacids, nothingper osfor 24 h.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Exposure of mucosa to chemicals, high temperatures, low pH, feline calicivirus or sharp edged object.
  • Decreased lower esophageal sphincter tone   →   gastro-esophageal reflux.

Predisposing factors

General

  • General anesthetic   →   gastro-esophageal reflux.
  • Acute or chronic vomiting   Vomiting  .
  • Feline calicivirus infection   Feline calicivirus  .
  • Licking of chemicals.

Pathophysiology

  • Chemical, thermal, viral insult to mucosa   →   inflammation   →   pain, abnormal motility and bleeding.
  • Gastro-esophageal reflux/hiatus hernia   →   low pH   →   mucosal inflammation.
  • Foreign body, eg bone   Esophagus: foreign body    →   mucosal damage   →   may result in perforation   Esophagus: perforation  mediastinitis.

Timecourse

  • Variable dependent on etiology - hours if chemical ingestion.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Han E, Broussard J & Baer K E (2003) Feline esophagitis secondary to gastroesophageal reflux disease: clinical signs and radiographic, endoscopic, and histopathological findings. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 39 (2), 161-167 PubMed.
  • Salapatek A M, Diamant N E (1993) Assessment of neural inhibition of the lower esophageal sphincter in cats with esophagitis. Gastroenterology 104 (3), 810-818 PubMed.
  • Geisinger K R, Cassidy K T, Nardi R et al (1990) The histologic development of acid-induced esophagitis in the cat. Mod Pathol (5), 619-624 PubMed.
  • Katz P O, Geisinger K R, Hassan M et al (1988) Acid-induced esophagitis in cats is prevented by sucralfate but not synthetic prostaglandin E. Dig Dis Sci 33 (2), 217-224 PubMed.
  • Clark S, Katz P O, Wu W C et al (1987) Comparison of potential cytoprotective action of sucralfate and cimetidine - Studies with experimental feline esophagitis. Am J Med 83 (3B), 56-60 PubMed.


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