Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Endomyocardial disease

Contributor(s): Sonja Fonfara, Elisa Mazzaferro, Mark Rishniw

Introduction

  • Endomyocardial disorders involve the endocardium and the underlying myocardium to varying extents.
  • The disorders are poorly characterized and may, in some cases, represent variations of a single etiology.
  • Feline endomyocardial diseases include: unclassified cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy  Heart: restrictive cardiomyopathy, excess moderator band cardiomyopathy, endocardial fibroelastosis, and non-septic endomyocarditis. 

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Etiology of endomyocardial diseases in cats is unknown.  The early onset of some of the cardiomyopathies suggests a congenital disorder Congenital heart disease: overview, but the range of ages at presentation (8 months to 19 years in 1 study) argues against this.
  • Endomyocarditis is thought to be an acquired inflammatory disorder, but no cause has been identified.

Pathophysiology

  • Thickening of the endocardium and myocardium by deposition of fibrous tissues results in marked loss of ventricular compliance.  In most cases, only the left ventricle is involved.  The decreased compliance produces diastolic dysfunction, leading to congestive heart failure Heart: congestive heart failure.

Timecourse

  • The subclinical onset of the disease is generally undetected.  Thus, the duration of the disease, and the nature of disease progression is unknown.  Once congestive heart failure develops, prognosis is generally poor.  Unclassified cardiomyopathy often fails to respond well to standard therapy.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Rush J E, Freeman L M, Fenollosa N K et al (2002) Population and survival characteristics of cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: 260 cases (1990-1999). JAVMA 220 (2), 202-207 PubMed.
  • Rush J E (1998) Therapy of feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 28 (6), 1459-1479 PubMed.
  • Stalis I H, Bossbaly M J & Van Winkle T J (1995) Feline endomyocarditis and left ventricular endocardial fibrosis. Vet Pathol 32 (2), 122-126 PubMed.
  • Saxon B, Hendrick M & Waddle J R (1991) Restrictive cardiomyopathy in a cat with hypereosinophilic syndrome. Can Vet J 32 (6), 367-369 PubMed.
  • Scott D W, Randolph J F & Walsh K M (1985) Hypereosinophilic syndrome in a cat. Feline Pract 15 (1), 22-7 VetMedResource.
  • Liu S, Fox P R & Tilley L P (1982) Excessive moderator bands in the left ventricle of 21 cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 180 (10), 1215-1219 PubMed.  

Other sources of information

  • Fox F P (1999) Feline Cardiomyopathies. In: Fox F P, Sisson D D, Moise N S (Eds) Textbook of Canine and Feline Cardiology. 2nd ed, Saunders Co, Philadelphia PA, pp 621-678.
  • Kittleson M D (1998) Feline unclassified and restrictive cardiomyopathy. In: Kittleson M D & Kienle R D (eds) Small Animal Cardiovascular Medicine. Mosby, St. Louis MO. pp 363-369.


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