ISSN 2398-2950      

Diaphragm: hernia

ffelis

Synonym(s): Diaphragmatic rupture, Pleuroperitoneal hernia


Introduction

  • Cause: acute abdominal compressive injuries.
    In all cases of trauma discuss with owner the potential complications at the time of injury.
  • Herniated organs include intestine, liver, spleen and stomach. Associated injuries include paracostal abdominal ruptures, pulmonary and cardiac contusions.
  • Duration of condition may be from several hours to several years.
  • Signs:
    • (Acute): shock, respiratory distress due to pulmonary atelectasis or contusion causing hypoxia, cardiac dysrhythmias caused by myocardial injury.
    • (Chronic): exercise intolerance, abnormal respiratory pattern, reluctance to lie down, empty abdomen on palpation, displacement of auscultated heart sounds, intermittent regurgitation, jaundice, hydrothorax, gastric herniation and tympany.
  • Onset of signs may be insidious.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs, radiography and ultrasonography.
  • Treatment: stabilization then surgical repair Diaphragm: repair of diaphragmatic defects.
  • Prognosis: reasonable; poor, if premature surgery.
Print off the owner factsheet Hernias in cats (diaphragmatic) to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Trauma; acute abdominal compressive injuries against a closed glottis.

Pathophysiology

  • Acute abdominal compressive injuries   →   diaphragmatic tears (circumferential, radial or a combination of the two)   →   organ herniation, eg intestine, liver, spleen, stomach   →   pulmonary compression   →   dyspnea.
  • Associated injuries (paracostal abdominal rupture, pulmonary atelectasis contusion)   →   hypoxia, cardiac contusion   →   myocardial injury   →   dysrhythmias.
  • Chronic herniation of abdominal organs (may)   →   intermittent regurgitation, jaundice, hydrothorax, gastric herniation and tympany.

Timecourse

  • Acute or chronic (hours to years).

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Liptak J M, Bissett S A, Allan G S et al (2002) Hepatic cysts incarcerated in a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia. J Feline Med Surg (2), 123-125 PubMed.
  • Hardie E M, Ramirez O 3rd, Clary E M et al (1998) Abnormalities of the thoracic bellows - stress fractures of the ribs and hiatal hernia. JVIM 12 (4), 279-287 PubMed.
  • Williams J, Léveille R, Myer C W (1998) Imaging modalities used to confirm diaphragmatic hernia in small animals. Compend Contin Educ 20 (11), 1199-1211 VetMedResource.
  • Voges A K, Bertrand S, Hill R C et al (1997) True diaphragmatic hernia in a cat. Vet Radiol & Ultras 38 (2), 116-119 PubMed.
  • Mann F A, Aronson E, Keller G (1991) Surgical correction of a true congenital pleuroperitoneal diaphragmatic hernia in a cat. JAAHA 27 (5), 501-507 VetMedResource.
  • Wilson G P 3rd, Hayes H M Jr. et al (1986) Diaphragmatic hernia in the dog and cat - a 25-year overview. Semin Vet Med Surg Small Anim (4), 318-326 PubMed.
  • Hammons J R (1980) Ventral hernia and diaphragmatic anomaly in a cat. Mod Vet Pract 61 (4), 347, 350 PubMed.
  • Frye F L, Taylor D O (1968) Pericardial and diaphragmatic defects in a cat. JAVMA 152 (10), 1507-1510 PubMed.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!