Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Diabetes insipidus

Synonym(s): CD,I Water diabetes

Contributor(s): David Bruyette, Carmel Mooney

Introduction

  • Rare endocrine disorder. Primary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus has not been reported in cat.
  • Cause: absolute or relative deficiency of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH).
  • 2 forms:
    • Hypothalamic-hypophyseal CDI (HDDI).
    • Nephrogenic DI (NDI).
  • Signs: polyuria/polydipsia; urine: low SG/osmolarity.
  • Diagnosis: water deprivation test/response to antidiuretic hormone.
  • Treatment: desmopressin (synthetic ADH) Desmopressin.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Central form

  • Partial or total failure to synthesize or release ADH   →   idiopathic or secondary, eg head trauma, neoplasia, inflammatory or vascular damage.

Nephrogenic form

Pathophysiology

  • Absolute or relative deficiency of ADH   →   marked polyuria and resultant polydipsia.
  • In normal animal only 95% of water reclaimed from Loop of Henle filtrate.
  • Destruction of production sites for vasopressin   →   reduced circulating hormone   →   membranes of distal tubule impermeable to water and solute   →   fluid from Loop of Henle excreted unmodified as urine.

Timecourse

  • Weeks to months.
  • May be years in primary form with no other clinical signs.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Aroch I, Mazaki-Tovi M, Shemesh O et al (2005) Central diabetes insipidus in five cats; clinical presentation, diagnosis and oral desmopressin therapy. J Feline Med Surg (6), 333-339 PubMed.
  • Feldhahn J R, Rand J S, Kinnaird E (1999) The effect of interday variation and a short term stressor on insulin sensitivity in clinically normal cats. J Fel Med Surg (4), 233-240 PubMed.
  • Feldhahn J R, Rand J S & Martin G (1999) Insulin sensitivity in normal and diabetic cats. J Feline Med Surg (2), 107-15 PubMed.
  • Martin G J W, Rand J S (1999) Food intake and blood glucose in normal and diabetic cats fed ad libitum. J Fel Med Surg (4), 241-251 PubMed.
  • Rand J (1999) Current understanding of feline diabetes : Part 1. Pathogenesis. J Feline Med Surg (3), 143-53 PubMed.
  • Haberer B & Reusch C E (1998) Glycated hemoglobin in various pathological conditions - investigations based on a new, fully automated method. JSAP 39 (11), 510-7 PubMed.
  • Kraus K H (1987) The use of desmopressin in the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes insipidus in cats. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet (7), 752-758 VetMedResource.
  • Burnie A G & Dunn J K (1979) A case of central diabetes insipidus in the cat - diagnosis and treatment. JSAP 23 (4), 237-41 VetMedResource.
  • Rogers W A, Valdez H & Anderson B C (1977) Partial deficiency of antidiuretic hormone‚Äč in a cat. JAVMA 170 (5), 545-547 PubMed.


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