Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Cystitis: bacterial

Contributor(s): Melissa Wallace, Penny Watson, Julien Bazelle

Introduction

  • Inflammation of the bladder due to bacterial lower urinary tract infection.
  • Cause: usually an ascending bacterial infection; predisposing factors are generally necessary for this opportunistic infection, ie rarely the initial cause in cats.
  • Signs: stranguria, dysuria, increased frequency of urination (pollakiuria) and small amounts of urine, hematuria.
  • Diagnosis: urine cytology and culture.
  • Treatment: antibiotics, supportive care (ie pain relief when appropriate).
  • Prognosis: generally good.
    Print off the owner factsheet Cystitis (bladder inflammation)  Cystitis (bladder inflammation)  to give to your client.
Follow the diagnostic tree for Recurrent urinary tract infection  Recurrent urinary tract infection.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

Causes of lower urinary tract infection and/or inflammation

  • Trauma.
  • Iatrogenic - catheterization.
  • Glucocorticoids (iatrogenic, hyperadrenocorticism).
  • Glucosuria (diabetes mellitus, Fanconi's syndrome).
  • Bladder distension (neurological or polyuria) increases binding sites for bacteria and reduces blood flow in bladder wall.
  • Decreased urethral function.
  • Neoplasia Bladder: neoplasia.

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • It is usually an ascending bacterial infection, less likely a hematogenous infection, and generally requires a predisposing factor in cats (different from dogs).
  • Predisposing factors + opportunistic microbes  →  ascending into bladder  →  cystitis  →  pyelonephritis Pyelonephritis.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Dorsch R, Teichmann-Knorrn S, Sjetne Lund H (2019) Urinary tract infection and subclinical bacteriuria in cats: A clinical update. J Feline Med Surg 21(11), 1023-1038 PubMed
  • Weese J S, Blondeau J, Boothe D et al (2019) International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases (ISCAID) guidelines for the diagnosis and management of bacterial urinary tract infections in dogs and cats. Vet J 247, 8-25 PubMed
  • Teichmann-Knorrn S, Reese S, Wolf G et al (2018) Prevalence of feline urinary tract pathogens and antimicrobial resistance over five years. Vet Rec 183(1), 21 PubMed
  • Lees G E (1996) Bacterial urinary tract infections. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 26 (2), 297-304 PubMed.
  • Low D A, Braaten B A, Ling G V et al (1988) Isolation and comparison of Escherichia coli strains from canine and human patients with urinary tract infections. Infect Immunol 56 (10), 2601-2609 PubMed.


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