Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Cystitis: bacterial

Contributor(s): Melissa Wallace, Penny Watson

Introduction

  • Inflammation of the bladder.
  • Cause: usually an ascending bacterial infection; predisposing factors are necessary for this opportunistic infection, ie rarely the initial cause in cats.
  • Signs: stranguria, dysuria, increased frequency of urination (pollakiuria) and small amounts of urine, hematuria.
  • Diagnosis: urine culture.
  • Treatment: antibiotics.
  • Prognosis: generally good.
    Print off the owner factsheet Cystitis (bladder inflammation)  Cystitis (bladder inflammation)  to give to your client.
Follow the diagnostic tree for Recurrent urinary tract infection  Recurrent urinary tract infection.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

Causes of lower urinary tract infection and/or inflammation

  • Trauma.
  • Iatrogenic - catheterization.
  • Glucocorticoids (iatrogenic, hyperadrenocorticism).
  • Glucosuria (diabetes mellitus, Fanconi's syndrome).
  • Decreased urine concentration (polyuria).
  • Indwelling urinary catheters.
  • Urolithiasis Urolithiasis.
  • Urethrostomy Urethrostomy.
  • Bladder distension (neurological or polyuria) increases binding sites for bacteria and reduces bloodflow in bladder wall.
  • Decreased urethral function.
  • Neoplasia Bladder: neoplasia.

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • It is usually an ascending bacterial infection, less likely a hematogenous infection, and requires a predisposing factor in cats (different from dogs).
  • Predisposing factors + opportunistic microbes   →   ascending into bladder   →   cystitis   →   pyelonephritis Pyelonephritis.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Lees G E (1996) Bacterial urinary tract infections. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 26 (2), 297-304 PubMed.
  • Low D A, Braaten B A, Ling G V et al (1988) Isolation and comparison of Escherichia coli strains from canine and human patients with urinary tract infections. Infect Immunol 56 (10), 2601-2609 PubMed.


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