Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Colitis

Contributor(s): Ed Hall, Philip K Nicholls, Kenneth Simpson

Introduction

  • Rare in cats (usually part of generalized IBD).
  • Signs: increased frequency of defecation with tenesmus; stools often with blood and mucus.
  • Causes: food intolerance, infection, abrasives, idiopathic.
  • Diagnosis: colonoscopy, histopathology.
  • Treatment: depends on causes, (dietary modification, sulfasalazine, antibiotics +/- corticosteroids).

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Idiopathic - perhaps immune-mediated response to antigens such as bacteria or diet, eg lymphocytic-plasmacytic colitis.
  • Bacterial - proposed on basis of response to antibiotics, eg pathogens - Salmonella spp   Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp Campylobacter jejuni  or commensal spp.
  • Other infectious causes include:
    • Protozoa - Giardia, trichomonas.
    • Fungi, parasites; whipworms in cats are rare and usually asymptomatic.
  • Abrasives, eg excessive hair ingestion or other foreign materials.

Pathophysiology

  • Mucosal damage   →   abnormal motility   →   failure to absorb fluid from feces; also decreased intestinal transit time   →   increased frequency of defecation.
  • Inflammation   →   stimulation of goblet cells to produce mucus.
  • Rectal inflammation   →   urgency to defecate.

Timecourse

  • Variable, often no inciting factor recognized.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Simpson J W (1998) Diet and large intestinal disease in dogs and cats. J Nutr 128 (12 Suppl), 2717S-2722S PubMed.
  • Dennis J S, Kruger J M, Mullaney T P (1993) Lymphocytic/plasmacytic colitis in cats - 14 cases (1985-1990). JAVMA 202 (2), 313-318 PubMed.
  • Feinstein R F, Olsson E (1992) Chronic gastroenterocolitis in nine cats. J Vet Diagn Invest (3), 293-298 PubMed.
  • Shimada A, Muraki Y, Awakura T et al (1992) Necrotic colitis associated with Entamoeba histolytica infection in a cat. J Comp Pathol 106 (2), 195-199 PubMed.
  • Leib M S, Sponenberg D P, Wilcke J R et al (1986) Suppurative colitis in a cat. JAVMA 188 (7), 739-741 PubMed.
  • Nimmo Wilkie J S, Barker I K (1985) Colitis due to Bacillus piliformis in two kittens. Vet Pathol 22 (6), 649-652 PubMed.
  • Nelson R W, Dimperio M E, Long G G (1984) Lymphocytic-plasmacytic colitis in the cat. JAVMA 184 (9), 1133-1135 PubMed.
  • Van Kruiningen H J, Ryan M J, Shindel N M et al (1983) The classification of feline colitis. J Comp Pathol 93 (2), 275-294 PubMed.


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