Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Chronic lymphoid leukemia

Synonym(s): CLL

Contributor(s): Irene Rochlitz

Introduction

  • Rare disease in cat much less common than acute lymphoid leukemia   Acute lymphoblastic leukemia  .
  • Cause: neoplastic transformation and proliferation of late precursor lymphoid cells.
  • Signs: slow progression and mild clinical signs. May be incidental finding.
  • Diagnosis: predominance of mature lymphoid cells in bone marrow and marked lymphocytosis.
  • Treatment: supportive, specific cytotoxic agents.
  • Prognosis: reasonable.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Pathophysiology

  • Replacement of normal bone marrow tissue with neoplastic cells   →   myelosuppression   →   anemia, thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia   →   secondary infections common.
  • Transformation of late precursor cells   →   proliferation of mature, differentiated cells   →  chronic leukemia  Leukemia  →   less severe cytopenia.
  • Excessive numbers of circulating cells/hyperproteinemia Hypoproteinemia  →   hyperviscosity   →   decreased oxygen transport to capillary beds   →   microthrombi of tumor cells.
  • Production of humoral factors   →   stimulation of osteoclasts   →   hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia: overview of malignancy   →   polyuria/polydypsia   →   renal failure Kidney: chronic kidney disease.

Timecourse

  • Months to years.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Darbès J, Majzoub M, Breuer W et al (1998) Large granular lymphocyte leukemia/lymphoma in six cats. Vet Pathol 35 (5), 370-379 PubMed.
  • Schick R O, Murphy C F, Goldschmidt M H (1993) Cutaneous lymphosarcoma and leukemia in a cat. JAVMA 203 (8), 1155-1158 PubMed.


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