ISSN 2398-2950      

Chronic bronchitis

ffelis

Introduction

  • Cause: chronic bronchial inflammation associated with mucus hypersecretion.
  • Signs: coughing for at least 2 of the last 12 months.
  • Diagnosis: signs, radiography, bronchial wash analysis.
  • Treatment: symptomatic.
  • Prognosis: relapsing course due to irreversible airway changes.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

  • Defective mucociliary clearance due to infection resulting in ciliary stasis and ciliary damage.
  • Dusty/polluted/smoky environment.
  • Previous or concurrent respiratory infection.
  • Immotile cilia syndrome.

Pathophysiology

  • Initiating factors   →   chronic airway inflammation, poor ciliary performance, increased mucus secretion   →   airway thickening, obstructive disease   →   bullous emphysema/recurrent bronchopneumonia.
  • Infection, especially bacterial, can complicate and exacerbate at any stage.
  • Inflammation and excessive mucus   →   plug small airways   →   secondary bacterial infection.
  • Thickened, obstructed airways   →   air trapping   →   ventilation/perfusion anomalies   →   secondary damage.

Timecourse

  • Months to years.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Moses B L & Spalding G I (1985) Chronic bronchial disease in the cat. Vet Clin North Am 15 (5), 929-48 PubMed.

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