ISSN 2398-2950      

Carbamate poisoning

ffelis
Contributor(s):

Rosalind Dalefield

Synonym(s): Carbaryl, methiocarb, toxicity, aldecarb, carbofuran, methomyl, propoxur


Introduction

  • Cause: insecticides derived from carbamic acid, thiocarbamic acid or dithiocarbamic acid, generally of low toxicity; mechanism of poisoning similar to organophosphate poisoning.
  • Signs: salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation, vomiting, tremor, convulsions.
  • Treatment: specific - atropine to effect; nervous signs - diazepam.
    The oximes (eg pralidoxime) are ineffective in carbamate poisoning.
  • See also organophosphorus poisoning Organophosphorus poisoning.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Carbamates, eg in insecticides, fungicides and herbicides; in particular aldicarb, oxamyl, methiocarb, carbofuran, isolan, methomyl, formetanate, aminocarb, cloethocarb, bendiocarb.
  • Vary in toxicity, generally considered to be of low toxicity.

Specific

  • Cat wearing flea collar treated with insecticidal spray.

Pathophysiology

  • Readily absorbed, fat soluble, diffuses readily into tissues.
  • Block acetylcholinesterase (reversible)   →   accumulation of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, may   →   respiratory failure   →   death.

Timecourse

  • Most cases mild with rapid onset over minutes - hours within ingestion or exposure.
  • Dermal cataract may take longer for clinical signs to develop.
  • Death due to respiratory failure - a few hours to several days (depends on compound).
  • Occasionally rapidly fatal due to asphyxia (inhibition of central respiratory drive and excessive bronchial secretion, bronchospasm, decreased function of respiratory muscles).

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Osweiler G D (1995) Toxicology. Philadelphia: Williams and Wilkins. ISBN: 0 6830 6664 1.
  • Blodgett DJ (2001) Organophosphate and Carbamate Insecticides. In: Small Animal Toxicology. Eds: M E Peterson and P A Talcott. Philadelphia: W B Saunders. ISBN: 0 7216 7826 2.

Organisation(s)

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