Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Burns

Contributor(s): Rosanna Marsella, David Scarff

Introduction

  • Caused by heat, electric currents   Electrocution  , chemicals, solar radiation and microwave radiation.
  • Full or partial thickness destruction of epidermis.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Fires.
  • Boiling water.
  • Hot fat.
  • Electric heating pads.
  • Hair dryers.
  • Hot metals, eg stoves.
  • Increasing temperature and contact time cause increasing burn severity.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Debility increases risk.

Specific

  • Toxemia, eg pyometra Pyometra, with reduction in peripheral blood flow predisposes to damage by heating pad.

Pathophysiology

  • Application of heat causes partial or full thickness necrosis of epidermal and dermal elements of the skin.
  • Bacterial invasion commonly results in secondary infection.
  • Increased fluid and electrolyte loss through wounds.
  • Full thickness burns cause complete vascular occlusion.
  • Skin becomes necrotic and may slough.
  • Fluid and electrolyte loss from skin   →   shock Shock    →   anemia, renal failure Kidney: acute renal failure and septicemia  Shock: septic.
  • Healing is by secondary intention and scarring
  • Partial thickness burns show revascularization commencing within 48 hours.
  • Healing is by re-epithelialization from hair follicles and sebaceous glands.
  • Initial bacterial colonization of wound surface by Gram-positive organisms.
  • After 3-4 days Gram-negative bacteria predominate.

Timecourse

  • May take 24-48 hours for full extent of damage to become apparent.
  • Burn healing is slow. Weeks or months of treatment may be necessary.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Breznock E M (1980) The systemic response of the traumatized patient: an overview. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 10 (3), 523-532 PubMed.
  • Swaim S F (1980) Trauma to the skin and subcutaneous tissues of dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 10 (3), 599-618 PubMed.
  • Posch A J, McDonald G (1977) Thermal burns in cats. Mod Vet Pract 58 (11), 937-938 PubMed.
  • Lewis G P, Lowe T J, White A M et al (1970) Biochemical changes in skin and muscle after thermal injury. Br J Exp Pathol 51 (1), 7-18 PubMed.


ADDED