ISSN 2398-2950      

Bronchiectasis

ffelis

Introduction

  • Bronchiectasis is an irreversible dilation of the bronchi.
  • Cause: the condition is usually secondary to broncho-obstructive disease, most commonly chronic bronchitis but occasionally to other lower respiratory tract disease.
  • Mucociliary clearance is disturbed   →   accumulation of mucus in the airways.
  • Infection commonly occurs   →   purulent secretion in the airway lumen.
  • Signs: coughing, dyspnea.
  • Diagnosis: Difficult to diagnose with auscultation or BAL/TTA. Use radiography, endoscopy or CT, if available.
  • Treatment: bronchodilators and corticosteroids for symptomatic management and antibiotics, if necessary, for any underlying infection.
  • Prognosis: largely determined by underlying disease but guarded as recurrent infection is very common.

Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General

Chronic bronchial obstructive diseases

Pulmonary disease

Developmental disorders

  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia (very rare).

Pathophysiology

  • Inflammation or damage to airway wall   →   dilation of bronchi   →   reduced mucociliary clearance   →   accumulation of mucus in airway lumen   →   reduced lumen and airflow.
  • May be cylindrical (most common) or saccular.
  • Usually occurs in a single lung lobe.
  • Predisposes to infection.
  • Mycoplasma may be isolated from cats with bronchial disease and have been implicated as an etiological agent, especially where bronchiectasis occurs.

Timecourse

  • Develops secondary to chronic airway disease, most frequently greater than one year duration.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Norris C R & Samii V F (2000) Clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of bronchiectasis in cats: 12 cases (1987-1999). JAVMA 216 (4), 530-534 PubMed.
  • Roperto F, Brunetti A, Saviano L et al (1996) Morphological alterations in the cilia of a cat. Vet Pathol 33 (4), 460-462 ResearchGate.
  • Dye J A (1992) Feline bronchopulmonary disease. Vet Clin North America -Small An Pract 22 (5), 1187-201 PubMed.
  • Moise N S, Weidenkellner D, Yeager A E et al (1989) Clinical, radiographic and bronchocytologic features of cats with bronchial disease: 65 cases (1980-1986). JAVMA 194 (10), 1467-73 Europe PMC.
  • Moses B L & Spaulding G L (1985) Chronic bronchial disease in the cat. Vet Clin North America -Small An Pract 15 (5), 929-48 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Stepien R L (1998) Specific feline cardiopulmonary conditions. In: Manual of Small Animal Cardiorespiratory Medicine and Surgery. Eds: V L Fentes & S Swift. Cheltenham: British Small Animal Veterinary Association. pp 245-261. ISBN 0 905214 33 1.
  • Henik, R A & Yeager, R E (1994) Bronchopulmonary diseases. In: The Cat: diseases and clinical management. 2nd ed. Ed: R G Sherding. New York: Churchill Livingston pp 245-261. ISBN 0 443 08879 9.

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