ISSN 2398-2950      

Brain: cerebellar disease

ffelis

Introduction

  • Diseases of the cerebellum lead to loss of the 'fine-tuning' of movements of the body and head.
  • Cause: many causes including vascular, inflammatory/infectious, neoplastic, congenital malformations and degenerative disorders (lysosomal storage diseases Storage disease).
  • Signs: presents as truncal ataxia, hypermetria with preservation of strength, intenion tremor of head, broad base stance, possibly decerebellate rigidity.
  • Involvement of adjacent structures may complicate the clinical picture; may have vestibular signs if flocculo-nodular lobe affected.
  • Prognosis: good-poor depending on etiology.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Degenerative

Neoplastic

Nutritional

Inflammatory

  • Idiopathic.
  • Infectious, eg viral (Feline infectious peritonitis), protozoal (toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis), rickettsial and mycotic.
  • Meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology (presumed immune mediated) (rare).

Toxic

Vascular

Traumatic

  • Head injury.

Anomalous

Predisposing factors

General

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Willoughby K & Kelly D F (2002) Hereditary cerebellar degeneration in three full sibling kittens. Vet Rec 151 (10), 295-298 PubMed.
  • Dubey J P, Mattix M E, Lipscomb T P (1996) Lesions of neonatally induced toxoplasmosis in cats. Vet Pathol 33 (3), 290-295 PubMed.
  • Inada S, Mochizuki M, Izumo S et al (1996) Study of hereditary cerebellar degeneration in cats. Am J Vet Res 57 (3), 296-301 PubMed.
  • March P A (1996) Degenerative brain disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 26 (4), 945-971 PubMed.
  • Quesnel A D, Parent J M (1995) Paradoxical vestibular syndrome in a cat with a cerebellar meningioma. Can Vet J 36 (4), 230-232 PubMed.
  • Palmer A  C, Cavanagh J B (1995) Encephalomyelopathy in young cats. JSAP 36 (2), 57-64 PubMed.
  • Parrish C R (1995) Pathogenesis of feline panleukopenia virus and canine parvovirus. Baillieres Clin Hematol (1), 57-71 PubMed.
  • Phillips T R, Prospero-Garcia O, Puaoi D L et al (1994) Neurological abnormalities associated with feline immunodeficiency virus infection. J Gen Virol 75 (Pt 5), 979-987 PubMed.
  • Carmichael K P, Howerth E W, Oliver J E Jr. et al (1993) Neuroaxonal dystrophy in a group of related cats. J Vet Diagn Invest (4), 585-590 PubMed.
  • Kornegay J N (1991) Ataxia, dysmetria, tremor - cerebellar diseases. Probl Vet Med (3), 409-416 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Bagley R S, Platt S R (2013) Tremors, involuntary movements and paroxysmal disorders. In: Platt S R & Olby N (eds). BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Neurology. BSAVA, pp 233-251.
  • De Lahunta A, Glass E (2009) Veterinary Neuroanatomy and Clinical Neurology. 3rd edn. St Louis, Saunders Elsevier. pp 360-370.

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