Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Bordetella bronchiseptica infection

Synonym(s): Bordetellosis

Contributor(s): Susan Dawson, Severine Tasker

Introduction

  • One of the agents involved in the feline upper respiratory tract syndrome.
  • May be primary and secondary pathogens of the respiratory tract.
  • Most cats are exposed to the bacteria Bordetella bronchiseptica before adulthood.
Print out owner factsheet on Bordetella Bordetella to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General

  • Dual infections with the respiratory viruses, feline herpesvirus and feline calicivirus, can occur.
  • Infection may arise independent of other pathogens, as well.

Specific

  • Predilection for ciliated epithelium of upper respiratory tract. Cats have higher infection rates than dogs.

Pathophysiology

  • Shed in oral and nasal secretions of infected cats.
  • Bacteria attach to ciliated epithelium then are able to induce ciliostasis.
  • Once attached haemaglutinins and exotoxins are produced which can induce ciliostasis.
  • Ciliostasis, local inflammation, and altered phagocytosis predispose to infection with other organisms.
  • Prolonged shedding of B. bronchiseptica can occur, after resolution of clinical signs.
  • Interspecies transmission probably occurs - dogs implicated in some feline cases.

Timecourse

  • Clinical signs often resolved within 10 days.
  • Young kittens with bronchopneumonia can present as a sudden death.

Epidemiology

  • Risk factors for infection include rescue shelters, multi-cat households, living in unhygienic conditions and contact with dogs with respiratory disease.
  • Subclinical and carrier infection possible.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

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