Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Atrioventricular valve dysplasia

Contributor(s): Serena Brownlie, Phil Fox

Introduction

  • Malformation of mitral and tricuspid valves. Most common congenital cardiac abnormality in the cat (17% of congenital heart lesions).
  • Cause: developmental abnormalities resulting in a spectrum of lesions; excessively long or short chordae tendineae, abnormal number, position and distribution of papillary muscles, thickened, distorted valve leaflets.
  • Signs: may be asymptomatic with systolic murmur, or exhibit signs of right- or left-sided congestive heart failure Heart: congestive heart failure.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs, radiography, Doppler and 2-D echocardiography, angiocardiography.
  • Treatment: as for congestive heart failure.
  • Prognosis: poor once clinical signs present.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Probably hereditary.

Pathophysiology

  • Valvular malformation   →   valvular incompetence   →   congestive heart failure.

Mitral dysplasia

  • Mitral regurgitation   →   left atrial and left ventricular volume overload   →   left atrial and ventricular dilation   →   increased left atrial pressure   →   pulmonary venous congestion   →   pulmonary edema (left-sided CHF).

Tricuspid dysplasia

  • Triscupid regurgitation   →   right atrial and right ventricular overload   →   right atrial and ventricular dilation   →   increased right atrial pressure   →   increased central venous pressure   Central venous pressure jugular distension and chronic venous congestion of liver (right-sided CHF).

Timecourse

  • Murmur from birth.
  • Depends upon severity of the lesion.
  • Survival time rarely >12 months after onset of CHF.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers


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