Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Alphachloralose poisoning

Contributor(s): Rosalind Dalefield, John Dodam, Myra Forster van-Hijfte

Introduction

  • Rodenticide, bird and mole killer.
  • Stimulatory and depressive actions on CNS.
  • Signs: progressive depression leading to death or recovery within 1-2 days.
  • Treatment: no antidote - emesis (within 2 hours of ingestion), then symptomatic.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Rodenticide, bird and mole poisons.
  • Cats have been affected after ingestion of mice with poison in gut.

Pathophysiology

  • LD50 400-600 mg/kg (minimal lethal dose around 100 mg/kg).
    Commercial preparations usually contain 2-4% active ingredient.
  • Metabolized to chloroethanol, which is a CNS depressant.
  • Excreted, as inactive glucuronide form, in urine.

Timecourse

  • Affected within hours of ingestion   →   death or recovery in 24-48 hours.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Segev G, Yas-Natan E, Schlosberg A et al (2006) Alpha-chloralose poisoning in dogs and cats: a retrospective study of 33 canines and 13 feline confirmed cases. Vet J 172 (1), 109-113 PubMed.
  • Foster D (1995) Alphachloralose. In Practice 17 (8), 381, 469 VetMedResource.
  • Lees P (1972) Pharmacology and toxicology of alphachloralose- a review. Vet Rec 91 (14), 330-333 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Lorgue G, Lechenet J & Riviere A (1996) Clinical Veterinary Toxicology. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. pp 38-39. ISBN 0 632 03269 3.

Organisation(s)


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