Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Bartonella

Synonym(s): Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rochalimae felis, cat scratch disease

Contributor(s): Stephen Barr, Grace Mulcahy

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Genus: Bartonella (includes those previously classified as Rochalimaea and Grahamella).

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • The red blood cell of the cat.

Lifecycle

  • Unknown.

Transmission

  • Vector is Ctenocephalides felis  Ctenocephalides felis , the cat flea.
  • Actual route of transmission to cats is unclear - may be by ingestion of flea feces or fleas.
  • Iatrogenic - via blood transfusion Blood transfusion.
  • Human infection is by a scratch from an infected cat through the claw being contaminated with Bartonella-infected flea feces or by direct contamination of an open wound with flea feces.
  • Tick exposure has been implicated in a few cases of B. henselae infection in people.

Pathological effects

  • Some cats seem to spontaneously eliminate Bartonella infection, however bacteremia for periods of over 22 months have been documented in naturally infected cats, as have relapsing infections.
  • Antibodies appear in the cat approximately 9 days after B. henselae infection, however, seropositivity does not correlate well with bacteremia.
  • Some seronegative cats are culture positive and some seropositive cats are culture negative, although bacteria can be cultured from most cats with very high antibody titers.
  • In cats: usually asymptomatic, however, has been incriminated in self-limiting disorientation and postural deficits, cataracts and female infertility.
  • In humans: cat scratch disease Cat scratch disease usually manifests as a lymphadenopathy proximal to the site of a cat scratch or bite. In immunocompromized individuals, bacillary angiomatosis or peliosis hepatitis can also result from B. henselae infection.
  • There are occasional reports in the literature of B. henselae being responsible for neurological signs, neuroretinitis and pneumonia Pneumonia.
  • In dogsB. henselae was isolated from a dog with hepatomegaly, peritoneal effusion, and peliosis hepatitis. B. vinsonii ssp. berkhoffi occurs in healthy dogs, and dogs with endocarditis, granulomatous, lymphadenitis or granulomatous rhinitis.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

  • Erythromycin Erythromycin and oxytetracycline Oxytetracycline diminish bacteremia.
  • Doxycycline Doxycycline (25 mg BID PO) for up to 4 weeks: follow-up blood culture 2-4 weeks after completion of antimicrobial treatment.
    Enrofloxacin and amoxycillin are not effective.

Control via environment

Vaccination

  • None available.

Other countermeasures

  • Thorough cleaning of bite or scratch wounds.
  • Humans with cat scratch disease have responded well to rifampicin, ciprofloxacin   Ciprofloxacin , trimethroprim-sulfonamethoxazole Trimethoprim , or gentamicin   Gentamicin  for 2-6 weeks.
  • Bacillary angiomatosis responds to doxycycline Doxycycline or erythromycin   Erythromycin.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Pennisi M G et al(2013) BartonellaSpecies Infection in Cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. J Feline Med Surg 15, 563-569 PubMed.
  • Robinson M T, Hillman T, Langton D A & Shaw S E (2009) Bartonella clarridgeiae in a cat in the UK. Vet Rec 164, 58-59.
  • Brunt J, Guptill L, Kordick D L, Kudrak S & Lappin M R (2006) American Association of Feline Practitioners 2006 Panel Report on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Bartonellaspp. infections. JFMS 8, 213-226.
  • Breitschwerdt E B (1997) Bartonella henselae - consequences of infection in the cat. In: Consultations in Feline Medicine. Eds J R August. W B Saunders Company, The Curtis Centre, Independence Square West, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 19106 3, 3-6.
  • Kordick D & Breitschwerdt E (1997) Beyond cat scratch disease. Feline Advisory Bureau Journal 35, 86-89.
  • Noah D L, Kramer C M, Verbesky M P, Rooney J A, Smith K A & Childs J E (1997) Survey of veterinary professionals and other veterinary conference attendees for antibodies to Bartonella henselae and B quintana. JAVMA 210(3) ,342-344.
  • Regnery R L, Rooney J A, Johnson A M, Nesby S L, Manzewitsch P, Beaver K & Olson J G (1996) Experimentally induced Bartonella henselae infections followed by challenge exposure and antimicrobial therapy in cats. AVJR57 12, 1714-1719.
  • Wolf A M (1997) Bartonella henselae - an important emerging zoonosis. In: Consultations in Feline Medicine. Eds J R August. W B Saunders Company, The Curtis Centre, Independence Square West, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 191063, 7-11.
  • Kitchell B E, Fan T M, Kordick D, Breitschwerdt E B, Wollenberg G & Lichtensteiger C A (2000) Peliosis hepatis in a dog infected with Bartonella henselae. J Am Vet Med Assoc 216(4), 519-523.

Organization(s)

  • Feline Virus Unit, Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Glasgow, Bearsden Road, Glasgow, Scotland G61 1QH, UK. Tel: +44 141 330 5777 Fax: +44 141 330 5748 e-mail: Feline@udcf.gla.ac.uk

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