ISSN 2398-2950      

Ancylostoma tubaeforme

ffelis

Synonym(s): Ancylostome tubaeforme, Feline hookworm


Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • PhylumNematoda
  • Sub-classSecernentea
  • OrderStrongylida
  • SuperfamilyAncylostomatoidea
  • FamilyAncylostomatidae
  • Sub-FamilyAncylostominae
  • GenusAncylostoma

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Clinical Effects

Pathological effects

  • Cats infected with 1000-2000 larvae develop weight loss and progrssive, fatal anemia, whereas those infected with up to 500 larvae develop a regenerative anemia which eventually stabilizes.

Other Host Effects

  • The life-cycle of the parasite within the definitive host involves migration through the lungs, up the trachea and down the esophagus (following skin penetration), a short period in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract, before returning to the lumen of the small intestine and maturation. 
  • Worms are believed to survive for up to 2 years in the host. Infection via skin penetration is followed by migration in the circulatory system to the lungs, crossing over to the airways, migration up the respiratory tract, swallowing and subsequent development in the intestine. The prepatent period will vary with the mode of infection but is usually between 14 and 28 days.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

  • Several anthelmintics licensed for use in cats are effective against A. tubaeforme. These include febantel Febantel, pyrantel Pyrantel embonate, and selamectin Selamectin.

Control via environment

  • As with many parasites of cats, preventing access to rodents can limit transmission. However, the most practical solution is regular worming to control this and other common nematode parasites.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Labarthe N, Serrão M L, Ferreira A M et al (2004) A survey of gastrointestinal helminths in cats of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Vet Parasitol 123 (1-2), 133-139 PubMed.
  • Anderson T C, Foster G W, Forrester D J (2003) Hookworms of feral cats in Florida. Vet Parasitol 115 (1), 19-24 PubMed.
  • Barutzki D, Schaper R (2003) Endoparasites in dogs and cats in Germany 1999-2002. Parasitol Res 90 (Suppl 3), S148-150 PubMed.
  • McTier T L, Shanks D J, Wren J A et al (2000) Efficacy of selamectin against experimentally induced and naturally acquired infections of Toxocara cati and Ancylostoma tubaeforme in cats. Vet Parasitol 91 (3-4), 311-319 PubMed.
  • Calvete C, Lucientes J, Castillo J A et al (1998) Gastrointestinal helminth parasites in stray cats from the mid-Ebro Valley, Spain. Vet Parasitol 75 (2-3), 235-240 PubMed.
  • Gasser R B, Stewart L E, Speare R (1996) Genetic markers in ribosomal DNA for hookworm identification. Acta Trop 62 (1), 15-21 PubMed.
  • Onwuliri C O, Nwosu A B, Anya O (1981) Experimental Ancylostoma tubaeforme infection of cats: changes in blood values and worm burden in relation to single infections of varying size. Z Parasitenkd 64 (2), 149-155 PubMed.
  • Okoshi S, Murata Y (1967) Experimental studies on ancylostomiasis in cats. 3. Egg culture of Ancylostoma tubaeforme Zeder, 1800 and Ancylostoma caninum Ercolani, 1859. Nihon Juigaku Zasshi​ 29 (4), 177-184 PubMed.
  • Okoshi S, Murata Y (1967) [Experimental studies on ancylostomiasis in cats. IV. Experimental infection of Ancylostoma tubaeforme and A. caninum to cat].​ Nihon Juigaku Zasshi​ 29 (5), 251-258 PubMed.
  • Okoshi S, Murata Y (1967) Experimental studies on ancylostomiasis in cats. V. Visceral migration of larvae of Ancylostoma tubaeforme and A. caninum in cats. Nihon Juigaku Zasshi​ 29 (6), 315-327 PubMed.
  • Ehrenford F A (1953) Differentiation of the ova of Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala in dogs. Am J Vet Res 14 (53), 578-580 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Soulsby E J L (1982) Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. 7th Edition. Ballière Tindall, London.

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