ISSN 2398-2985      

Morphine

Jreptile

Introduction

Name

  • Morphine.

Class of drug

  • Opioid analgesic.
  • Pure mu agonist.
  • Schedule 2 opioid analgesic.

Description

Chemical name

  • (5α,6α)-7,8-didehydro- 4,5-epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6-diol.

Molecular formula

  • C17H19NO3.

Physical properties

  • Tablets.
  • Solution.

Storage requirements

  • Must be stored in a locked safe and its use recorded in a logbook.

Uses

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Indications

  • A narcotic analgesic used primarily as a pre-anesthetic agent.
  • Peri-operative and severe traumatic pain relief.
  • Extradural analgesia Analgesia.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

With other drugs

CNS depressants (anesthetics, antihistamines, barbiturates, phenothiazines, tranquilizers)
  • Enhanced central nervous system (CNS) or respiratory depression may occur.

With diagnostic tests

Plasma amylase or lipase
  • As narcotic analgesics can increase biliary tract pressure, levels may be increased for up to 24 h after drug administration.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Perpinan D (2018) Reptile anaesthesia and analgesia. Comp Anim 23 (4), 2-9 VetMedResource.
  • Sladky K K, Kinney M E & Johnson S M (2009) Effects of opioid receptor activation on thermal antinociception in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta). J Am Vet Res 70 (9), 1072-1078 PubMed.
  • Sladky K K, Kinney M E & Johnson S M (2008) Analgesic efficacy of butorphanol and morphine in bearded dragons and corn snakes. JAVMA 233 (2), 267-273 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Bertelsen M F (2019) Anaesthesia and Analgesia. In: BSAVA Manual of Reptiles3rd edn. Eds: Girling S J & Raiti P. BSAVA, UK, pp 206-207.
  • The NOAH Compendium. Datasheets of Licensed Veterinary Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
  • US Food & Drug Administration (FDA). Questions and Answers on FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Website: www.fda.gov.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate. Adverse Reaction Reporting. Website: www.vmd.defra.gov.uk.

Organisation(s)


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