Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Enterotomy / enterectomy

Contributor(s): Agata Witkowska, David Perpinan

Introduction

  • Relatively uncommon procedure performed for access to the intestinal tract.
  • The intestinal tract of certain species is very fragile and enterectomy is not always possible, eg small lizards. Enterotomy is commonly performed for foreign body removal in snakes and lizards after ingestion of inappropriate objects.
  • Due to the shape of snake bodies and anatomical positioning of the gastrointestinal tract, enterectomies are contraindicated in most cases.

Uses

  • Foreign body removal.
  • Intussusception.
  • Neoplasia.
  • Intestinal biopsy.
  • Iatrogenic trauma.
  • Resection due to perforation by foreign bodies, eg substrate ingestion in bearded dragons Bearded dragons.

Advantages

  • The surgery allows for direct visualization and assessment of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Biopsies and foreign body removals can be performed during the same surgery.

Disadvantages

  • Invasive procedure requiring celiotomy Celiotomy.
  • Risk of anesthesia Anesthesia overview.
  • High risk of post-operative complications.
  • Intensive post-operative care often required.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Poor to guarded dependent on section of intestine removed.
  • Poor in snakes regardless.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Girolamom N D & Mans C (2016) Reptile soft tissue surgery. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 19 (1), 97-131 VetMedResourcer.
  • Alworth L C, Hernandez S M & Divers S J (2011) Laboratory reptile surgery: principles and techniques. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 50 (1), 11-26 PubMed.
  • Büker M, Foldenauer U, Simova-Curd S, Martig S & Hatt J-M (2010) Gastrointestinal obstruction caused by a radiolucent foreign body in a green iguana (Iguana Iguana). Can Vet J 51 (5), 511-514 PubMed.
  • Wosar M A & Lewbart G A (2006) Ileocolic intussusception in a pine snake (Pituophis melanoleucus). Vet Rec 158 (5), 698-699 PubMed.
  • Secor S M, Whang E E, Lane J S, Ashley S W & Diamond J (2000) Luminal and systemic signals trigger intestinal adaptation in the juvenile python. Am J Physiol Gastro Liver Physiol 279 (6), G1177-G1187 PubMed.
  • Latimer K S & Rich G A (1998) Colonic adenocarcinoma in a Corn snake (Elaphe guttata guttata). J Zoo Wildl Med 29 (3), 344-346 PubMed.
  • Rahal S C, Teixeira C R, Castro G B & Vulcano L C (1998) Intestinal obstruction by stones in a turtle. Can Vet J 39 (6), 375-376 VetMedResource.
  • Schumacher J, Papendick R, Herbst L & Jacobson E R (1996) Volvulus of the proximal colon in a Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata). J Zoo Wildl Med 27 (3), 386-391 VetMedResource.
  • Isenbugel E & Barandun G (1981) Surgical removal of a foreign body in a bastard turtle. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 76 (12), 1766-1768 PubMed.
  • Jacobson E R & Ingling A L (1976) Pyloroduodenal resection in a Burmese python. J Am Vet Med Assoc 169 (9), 985-987 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Divers S J & Stahl S J (2019) Gastrointestinal Tract. In: Mader’s Reptile and Amphibian Medicine and Surgery. Elsevier, USA. pp 169-170.
  • Doneley B, Monks D, Johnson R & Brendan C (2017) Surgery. In: Reptile Medicine and Surgery in Clinical Practice. John Wiley & Sonds, USA. pp 390-391.
  • Bennett R A & Mader D R (2006) Surgery. In: Reptile Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Ed: Mader D R. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 581-630.
  • McArthur S (2004) Surgery. In: Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Eds: McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 435-439.


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