Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Cloaca / colon manual replacement

Synonym(s): Manual replacement of the cloaca / colon

Contributor(s): Agata Witkowska, David Perpinan

Introduction

  • Manual replacement of prolapsed cloaca or colon is relatively easy for non-experienced staff in acute, uncomplicated cases, Cloacal organ prolapse. This is largely dependent on the chronicity of the problem and presentation as well as the size of the prolapsed organ; often the tissue is too swollen to be replaced and may need to be shrunk and managed before replacement is attempted.
  • Ease of manual replacement varies in each case.
  • Success of manual replacement is low in chronic case s, which are often complicated by underlying issues, eg parasitism. Recurrence is frequent if these are not investigated and addressed.
  • Often patients require sedation or full general anesthesia.

Uses

Advantages

  • Quick.
  • Preserves more tissue.
  • Shorter than for cloacopexy/colopexy Cloacopexy/colopexy, even if anesthesia is required.

Disadvantages

  • High risk of recurrence: even higher if underlying cause left untreated and tenesmus not controlled.
  • Risk of tissue trauma and infection when done conscious.
  • Risk of injury to staff if attempted conscious in fractious animals.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Good to guarded with appropriate husbandry and if underlying cause determined.
  • May need further cloacapexy/colopexy, or resection and anastomosis.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Girolamo N D & Mans C (2016) Reptile soft tissue surgery. Vet Clin Exot Anim 19 (1), 97-131 PubMed
  • Music M K & Strunk A (2016) Reptile critical care and common emergencies. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 19 (2), 591-612 PubMed.
  • Alworth L C & Hernandez S M & Divers S J (2011), Laboratory reptile surgery: Principles and techniques. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 50 (1), 11-26 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Doneley B & Johnson R (2017) Diseases of the Gastrointestinal System. In: Reptile Medicine and Surgery in Clinical Practice. Wiley & Sons, UK. pp 280-283.
  • Carpenter J W (2013) Reptiles. In: Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Elsevier, USA. pp 100-113.
  • Chitty J & Raftery A (2013) Prolapse. In: Essentials of Tortoise Medicine and Surgery. Wiley-Blackwell, UK. pp 270-274.
  • Meredith A & Johnson-Delaney C (2010) Common Conditions. In: BSAVA Manual of Exotic Pets. 5th edn. Eds: Meredith A & Johnson-Delaney C. BSAVA, UK. pp 302.
  • Bennett R A & Mader D R (2006) Cloacal Prolapse. In: Reptile Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Ed: Mader D R. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 751-755.
  • Denardo D (2006) Reproductive Biology. In: Reptile Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Ed: Mader D R. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 376-390.
  • Hernandez-Divers S & McArthur S (2004) Surgery. In: Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Eds: McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 410-413.
  • McArthur S (2004) Problem-solving Approach to Common Diseases. In: Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Eds: McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 309-314 & 411-413.


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