Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Vitamin B1

Synonym(s): Thiamine, Thiamin, Aneurine, Thiamine HCl

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Vitamin B1.

Class of drug

  • Vitamin.

Description

Chemical name

  • 2-[3-[(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-3-ium-5-yl]ethanol.

Molecular formula

  • C12H17N4OS.

Molecular weight

  • 265.35.

Physical properties

  • Water-soluble vitamin.
  • Thiamine HCl occurs as bitter-tasting, white, small hygroscopic crystals, or crystalline powder that has a characteristic yeast-like odor.
  • Thiamine HCl is freely soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol.

Storage requirements

  • Thiamine HCl for injection should be protected from light and stored at temperatures less than 40ºC/104ºF (preferably between 15-30ºC/59-86ºF).
  • Highly labile vitamin.

Uses

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Indications

  • For suspected thiamine deficiency (fish-fed reptiles) Nutritional requirements:
    • Vitamin B1 deficiency is seen in fish-fed reptiles, such as water snakes, crocodiles, and aquatic chelonians. 
    • Frozen fish in particular has less vitamin B1 and more thiaminase enzymes than fresh fish.
  • Long-term antibiotic therapy may induce thiamine deficiency by affecting the intestinal bacteria that synthesize thiamine.
  • Thiamine deficiency is also possible in herbivorous species.
  • Vitamin B1 may be useful in alleviating the signs of lead poisoning and ethylene glycol toxicity.
  • Clinical signs of thiamine deficiency include tremors, torticollis, blindness, convulsions and death.
  • Advised in undiagnosed CNS cases.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Amprolium can induce hypovitaminosis B1.
  • Thiamine may enhance the activity of neuromuscular blocking agents.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Feldman SH, Formica M, Brodie ED (2011) Opisthotonus, torticollis and mortality in a breeding colony of Anolis sp lizards. Lab Animal 40 (4), 107-108 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 1296.
  • Mader D R (2006) Ed Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 1242.
  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 579.
  • Girling S J & Raiti P (2004) BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. BSAVA, UK. pp 383.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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