Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Vitamin E

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Alpha-tocopherol.

Class of drug

  • Vitamin.

Description

Chemical name

  • (+)-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(4812-trimethyltridecyl)-6-chromanol.

Molecular formula

  • C29H50O2.

Molecular weight

  • 430.69.

Physical properties

  • Water insoluble pale viscous oil.
  • Boiling point 210°C/410°F.
  • Melting point 2-3°C/35.6-37.4°F.

Storage requirements

  • Alpha-tocopherol is destroyed by light and oxygen, but is relatively heat stable.
  • Viability is lost during significant heating and freezing.
  • Encapsulation protects against vitamin E destruction.
  • Store at temperatures <25°C/77°F.

Uses

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Indications

  • Vitamin E deficiency Nutritional requirements:
    • Lack of vitamin E in reptiles have been associated with birth defects, reduced reproductive behavior, anorexia, muscle weakness, fasciculations, convulsions, steatitis (sloughing of the skin, necrosis, granulation of subcutaneous fat deposits, ulcerations of the cloaca, and opportunistic secondary infections), and death.
    • Cases of hypovitaminosis E are more commonly seen in reptiles fed a diet of fish, particularly if the fish is fatty and has become rancid, but it can also be seen in herbivorous reptiles.
  • May improve reproductive efficiency by reducing germ cell oxidative damage.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • May enhace vitamin A Vitamin A absorption, utilization and storage.
  • May alter cyclosporin pharmacokinetics.

with diagnostic tests

  • Intramuscular injections may transiently increase both creatine kinase and AST levels due to muscle damage.
  • There are no known interactions with oral or topical forms.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Schneider C (2005) Review: chemistry and biology of vitamin E. Mol Nutr Food Res 49 (1), 7-30 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 338.
  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 1296.
  • Higdon J, Drake V J & Traber M G (2008) Vitamin E. Oregon State University, Linus Pauling Institute, Micronutrient Information Center. Website: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu.
  • Mader D R (2006) Ed Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 1242.
  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 579.
  • Girling S J & Raiti P (2004) BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. BSAVA, UK. pp 383.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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