Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Vitamin D

Synonym(s): Vitamin D3, Cholecalciferol, Vitamin D2, Ergocalciferol, Calciferol, Calcidiol, 25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol, Calcitriol, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Vitamin D.

Class of drug

  • Vitamin.

Description

Chemical name

  • Calciferol.

Molecular formula

  • C27H44O3.

Molecular weight

  • 416.636.

Physical properties

  • Colorless, crystalline solid.
  • White crystalline powder.

Storage requirements

  • Calcitriol capsules: protect from moisture, heat, and light; store in tight, light-resistant containers at 15-30ºC/59-86ºF.
  • Calcitriol oral solution: protect from light; store at 15-30ºC/59-86ºF.
  • Calcitriol injection: store at room temperature (25ºC/77ºF); freezing should be avoided (brief exposure to temperatures up to 40ºC/104ºF does not adversely affect the injection); exposure to excessive heat should be avoided.

Uses

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Indications

  • Management of metabolic bone diseases Metabolic bone disease, due to low calcium/vitamin D intake, lack of ultraviolet light exposure, excessive and rapid growth, intestinal malabsorption, renal disease or chronic liver disease.
  • Metabolic bone diseases are common in reptiles (figure 1 vitamin D).

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Sucralfate decreases the absorption of vitamin D.
  • Magnesium or calcium-containing antacids may cause hypermagnesemia or hypercalcemia when used with vitamin D.
  • Hypercalcemia may develop if used in combination with thiazide diuretics.
  • Hypercalcemia may potentiate the toxic effects of verapamil or digoxin and close monitoring is advised.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Watson M K, Byrd J, Phillips C A et al (2017) Characterizing the 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of two populations of free-ranging Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). J Zoo Wildl Med 48 (3), 742-747 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 20-21.
  • Mayer J & Donnelly T M (2013) Clinical Veterinary Advisor: Birds and Exotic Pets. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 752.
  • Mader D R (2006) Ed Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 1242.
  • McEvoy G K (2005) Ed American Hospital Formulary Service - Drug Information 2005. Ed: Bethesda M D. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. (Plus Supplements). pp 3545.
  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Wiley-Blackwell, UK. pp 579.
  • Girling S J & Raiti P (2004) BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. BSAVA, UK. pp 383.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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