Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Tiletamine / zolazepam

Synonym(s): Telazol, Zoletil

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Tiletamine/zolazepam combination.
Only available as 1:1 combinations - Telazol® (US) and Zoletial® (Europe).

Class of drug

  • Tiletamine: phencylidine derivative; dissociative anesthetic; NMDA-receptor antagonist.
  • Zolazepam: benzodiazepine; muscle relaxant; modulation of chloride ion transport following binding of the GABAA receptor.

Description

Chemical name

  • Tiletamine: 2-ethylamino-2-2(2-thienyl) cyclohexanone.
  • Zolazepam: 4-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,3,8-trimethyl-6,8-dihydrophyrazolo[3,4-e][1,4]diazepin-7(1H)-one.
  • Tilemamine + zolazepam: 2-(ethylamino)-2-thiophen-2-ylcyclohexan-1-one;4-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,3,8-trimethyl-6H-pyrazolo[3,4-e][1,4]diazepin-7-one;dihydrochloride.

Molecular formula

  • Tiletamine: C12H17NOS.
  • Zolazepam: C15H15FN4O.
  • Tiletamine + zolazepam: C27H34Cl2FN5O2S.

Molecular weight

  • Tiletamine: 223.34.
  • Zolazepam: 286.304.
  • Tiletamine + zolazepam: 582.56.

Physical properties

  • Yellow, crystalline freeze dried solid.
  • 571 mg active drug as a 1:1 ratio per vial; final concentration after dilution is 100 mg/mL.

Storage requirements

  • Store in a cool place below 30°C/86°F.
  • Once reconstituted can be kept at room temperature for 8 days with retention of 90% efficacy (Zoletil®) or 14 days if refrigerated (4°C/39.2°F).

Uses

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Indications

  • Sedation/restraint.
  • Premedication to allow intubation.
  • Anesthesia:
    • Even at very high doses, the reptile may remain responsive to stimuli; therefore, this agent is not recommended as a sole agent of general anesthesia.
    • It should be combined with inhalational or local anesthesia.
  • It requires a small injection volume (to be considered particularly in large animals).

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Reduce dose when used with gas anesthetics, barbiturates and phenotiazines.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • von Degerfeld M M (2004) Personal experiences in the use of association tiletamine/zolazepam for anaesthesia of the green iguana (Iguana iguana). Vet Res Comms 28 (Suppl 1), 351-353 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley Blackwell, USA. pp 1296.
  • Mader D R (2006) Ed Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 1242.
  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Wiley Blackwell, UK. pp 579.
  • Girling S J & Raiti P (2004) BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. BSAVA, UK. pp 383.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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