Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Pethidine

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Pethidine.
  • Meperidine.

Class of drug

  • Synthetic opioid analgesic of the phenylpiperidine class.
  • u-opioid receptor agonist, with some activity on k and d receptors.

Description

Chemical name

  • Ethyl 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-piperidinecarboxylate (IUPAC name).

Molecular formula

  • C15H21NO2.

Molecular weight

  • 247.3364.

Physical properties

  • Fine white crystalline powder.
  • Very soluble in water.
  • pH 3.5-6 in commercial injectable forms.

Storage requirements

  • Tablets and infection should be stored in tightly closed containers protected from light, and not allowed to freeze.
  • Stable at room temperature.
  • Schedule 2 controlled drug in the UK - thus subject to strict storage, prescription, dispensing, destruction and record keeping requirements.

Uses

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Indications

  • Management of pain.
  • Although it seems to be effective in reptiles, other opioids are preferred, eg morphine, due to drug availability in clinical settings and more studies indicating proper dosages and effects.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Other opioids
  • Similar side effects will be additive.
Central nervous system (CNS) depressants (anesthetics, antihistamines, barbiturates, phenothiazines, tranquilizers)
  • Increased CNS or respiratory depression.
Cimetidine
  • The metabolism of pethidine is inhibited thereby increasing plasma concentrations.

with diagnostic tests

  • Plasma amylase and lipase
  • As narcotic analgesics may increase biliary tract pressure, levels may be increased for up to 24 h after narcotic administration.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Sladky K & Mans C (2012) Clinical analgesia in reptiles. J Exotic Pet Med 21 (2), 158-167 SciDirect.
  • Wambugu S N, Towett P K, Kiama S G et al (2010) Effects of opioids in the formalin tests in the Speke’s hinged tortoise (Kinixys spekii). J Vet Pharmacol Therap 33 (4), 347-351 WileyOnline.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley Blackwell, USA. pp 1296.
  • Girling S J & Raiti P (2004) BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. BSAVA, UK. pp 383.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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