Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Pentobarbital

Synonym(s): Pentobarbitone, Nembutal, Dolethal, Euthasal, Euthalal, Lethobarb, Pentoject

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Pentobarbital.

Class of drug

  • Short-acting barbiturate.

Description

Chemical name

  • 5-ethyl-5-pentan-2-yl-1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione.
  • sodium;5-ethyl-4,6-dioxo-5-pentan-2-yl-1H-pyrimidin-2-olate.

Molecular formula

  • Pentobarbital: C11H18N2O3.
  • Pentobarbital sodium: C11H17N2NaO3.

Molecular weight

  • Pentobarbital: 226.27.
  • Pentobarbital sodium: 248.25.

Physical properties

  • Odorless, slightly bitter tasting, white, crystalline powder or granules.
  • Very soluble in water and freely soluble in alcohol.

Storage requirements

  • Room temperature.
  • Not to use if precipitates occur.

Uses

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Indications

  • Euthanasia Euthanasia (pentobarbital is the major active ingredient in several euthanasia solutions).
  • Its use for induction and maintenance of anesthesia is no longer recommended.

Administration

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Drugs which may increase the effect of pentobarbitone
  • Chloramphenicol.
  • Other central nervous system (CNS) depressants (antihistamines, narcotics, phenothiazines).
  • Valproic acid.
Drugs acted on by pentobarbitone (enhanced metabolism/decreased effect)
  • Beta-blockers, eg propranolol.
  • Corticosteroids.
  • Metronidazole.
  • Quinidine.
  • Theophylline.
Barbiturates
  • May enhance the effects of other anti-epileptics.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 338.
  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley Blackwell, UK. pp 1296.
  • Carpenter J W & Marion C J (2013) Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Saunders, USA.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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