Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Midazolam

Synonym(s): Midazolam HCl, Dormicum, Versed, Hypnovel

Introduction

Name

  • Midazolam.

Class of drug

  • Short-acting benzodiazepine.

Description

Chemical name

  • 8-chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine hydrochloride.

Molecular formula

  • Cl8H13ClFN3.

Molecular weight

  • 325.77.

Physical properties

  • White to light yellow crystalline powder.
  • Soluble in water at 10 mg/mL.

Storage requirements

  • Room temperature and protected from light.
  • The injectable form can be frozen (at least for 3 days).

Uses

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Indications

  • Sedative agent.
  • Effect may be increased when combined with other sedatives/anesthetics.
  • Emergency control of seizures (mainly those caused by hypocalcemia).

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Antihistamines, barbiturates, opioid analgesics, or other central nervous system depressants
  • Concurrent use may enhance the sedative effect.
Opioid analgesics, eg pethidine
  • May increase the hypnotic and hypotensive effects of midazolam.
  • Midazolam has very few hypotensive effects.
  • Midazolam has good cardiovascular stability.
Inhalational anesthetics
  • Decrease the dosages required.
Erythromycin
  • Inhibits the metabolism of midazolam.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Doss G A, Fink D M, Sladky K K et al (2017) Comparison of subcutaneous dexmedetomidine-midazolam versus alfaxalone-midazolam sedation in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). Vet Anaesth Analg 44 (5), 1175-1183.
  • Emery L, Parsons G, Gerhardt L et al (2014) Sedative effects of intranasal midazolam and dexmedetomidine in 2 species of tortoises (Chelonoidis carbonaria and Geochelone platynota). J Exotic Pet Med 23 (4), 380-383.
  • Harms C A, Piniak W E D, Eckert S C et al (2014) Sedation and anesthesia of hatchling leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) for auditory evoked potential measurement in air and in water. J Zoo Wildl Med 45 (1), 86-92.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 338.
  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell. pp 1296.
  • Ramsey I (2014) BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. 8th edn. BSAVA, UK. ISBN: 9781905319657.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate (2013) Veterinary Medicines Guidance Notes. Website: www.gov.uk.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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