Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Metronidazole

Synonym(s): Metronidazole HCl, Flagyl, Stomorgyl, Protosta, Metrolyl

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Metronidazole.

Class of drug

  • Synthetic nitroimidazole.

Description

Chemical name

  • 2-(2-methyl-5-nitroimidazol-1-yl)ethanol.

Molecular formula

  • C6H9N3O3.

Molecular weight

  • 171.15.

Physical properties

  • White to pale yellow crystalline powder or crystals.
  • It is sparingly soluble in water or alcohol.
  • Metronidazole HCl is very soluble in water.
  • Some tablets may be difficult to dilute into a suspension.

Storage requirements

  • Room temperature and protected from light.
  • The injectable form should not be frozen.

Uses

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Indications

  • Used in reptiles for anaerobic and protozoal infections.
  • Anerobic infections: they can occur in situations such as stomatitis in snakes, diarrhea in tortoises, etc, involving species such as Fusobacterium, Clostridium, etc.
  • Protozoal infections: Giardia, Entamoeba, Hexamita, Balantidium, etc.
  • It is also used as an appetite stimulant in reptiles.
  • Metronidazole also has activity against aerobic bacteria.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Phenobarbitone or phenytoin
  • May increase metabolism of metronidazole.
Cimetidine
  • May decrease metabolism of metronidazole and increase the likelihood of dose-related adverse effects occurring.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Innis C, Papich M & Young D (2007) Pharmacokinetics of metronidazole in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) after single intracoelomic injection. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 30 (2), 168-171 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 338.
  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell. pp 1296.
  • Mayer J & Donnelly T M (2013) Clinical Veterinary Advisor: Birds and Exotic Pets. Elsevier, USA. pp 752.
  • Mader D R (2006) Ed Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 1242.
  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 579.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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