Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Lidocaine

Synonym(s): Lignocaine, Xylocaine

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Lidocaine.

Class of drug

  • Amide-linked local anesthetic.
  • Class 1B antidysrhythmic.

Description

Chemical name

  • 2-(diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide.

Molecular formula

  • C14H22N2O.

Molecular weight

  • 234.34.

Physical properties

  • White, odorless, slightly bitter tasting, crystalline powder.
  • Very soluble in water and alcohol.

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature.
  • Avoid freezing.

Uses

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Indications

  • Used predominantly as a local anesthetic.
  • Onset of local anesthesia typically 5-10 min.
  • Duration of local anesthesia usually 1-2 h.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Cimetidine
  • May increase serum lidocaine levels or its effects if administered concurrently.
Propranolol
  • May increase serum lidocaine levels or its effects if administered concurrently.
Procainamide
  • May cause additive CNS effects.
Other anti-dysrhythmics
  • May cause increased myocardial depression.
Acetazolamide, loop diuretics and thiazides
  • The effect of lidocaine may be antagonized by hypokalemia with the above drugs Furosemide.
Suxamethonium
  • Large doses of lidocaine may prolong suxamethonium-induced apnea.
Other local anesthetics
  • Dose of lidocaine should be reduced when used in combination with other local anesthetics.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Stegmann G F, Williams C J A & Franklin C (2017) Long-term surgical anaesthesia with isoflurane in human habituated Nile crocodiles. J South Afr Vet Assoc 88, a1451.
  • Spadola F & Morici M (2016) Treatment of turtle shell ulcerations using photopolymerizable nano-hybrid dental composite. J Exotic Pet Med 25 (4), 288-294.
  • Spadola F, Morici M, Oliveri M et al (2016) Description of cloacoscopy in the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta). Acta Veterinaria Brno 85 (4), 367-370.
  • Spadola F, Morici M & Knotek Z (2015) Combination of lidocaine/prilocaine with tramadol for short time anaesthesia-analgesia in chelonians: 18 cases. Acta Veterinaria Brno 84 (1), 71-75.
  • Mans C (2014) Clinical technique: intrathecal drug administration in turtles and tortoises. J Exotic Pet Med 23 (1), 67-70.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 338.
  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell. pp 1296.
  • Ramsey I et al (2011) Lidocaine. In: BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. 7th edn. BSAVA, UK.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate (2013) Veterinary Medicines Guidance Notes. Website: www.gov.uk.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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