Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Ketamine

Synonym(s): Ketamine HCl, Ketaset, Vetalar, Narketan, Ketaflo, Ketaject, Vetamine, Ketaved, VetaKet

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Ketamine.

Class of drug

  • Injectable general anesthetic.
  • Cyclohexanone derivative.
  • N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist.

Description

Chemical name

  • (+/-)-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexanone.

Molecular formula

  • C13H16ClNO.

Molecular weight

  • 237.73.

Physical properties

  • White crystalline powder.

Storage requirements

  • In a locked cabinet.
  • <25%.
  • Protect from light.

Uses

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Indications

  • A dissociative anesthetic/analgesic used to provide restraint or dissociative anesthesia Anesthesia overview.
  • Dissociative anesthesia is associated with mild stimulation of cardiac output and blood pressure, modest respiratory depression and preservation of cranial nerve reflexes.
  • Effect is less predictable than with other anesthetics.
  • Better used for induction or for restraint/minor procedures.
  • Little visceral analgesia when used alone.
  • There is no reversal agent for ketamine: high doses (when not combined with other anesthetic drugs) may be dangerous or produced prolonged recoveries.
  • Moderate doses of ketamine produce increased heart rate, hypertension, and respiratory depression. At increasing doses, the drug will induce apnea, bradycardia, and eventually death.
Eyes remain open during anesthesia, thus a bland ophthalmic lubricant should be used.
  • Schedule 4 drug.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Narcotics, barbiturates, diazepam, halothane and chloramphenicol may prolong recovery.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Adel M, Sadegh A B, Arizza V et al (2017) Anesthetic efficacy of ketamine-diazepam, ketamine-xylazine, and ketamine-acepromazine in Caspian pond turtles (Mauremys caspica). Indian J Pharmacol 49 (1), 93-97 PubMed.
  • Campagnol D, Lemos F R, Silva E L F et al (2014) Comparison of pharmacological restraint with ketamine and xylazine, administered intramuscularly in the forelimb or hindlimb, in broad-snouted caiman juveniles. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 34 (7), 675-681 VetMedResource.
  • Harms C, Piniak W E D, Eckert S A et al (2014) Sedation and anesthesia of hatchlings leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) for auditory evoked potential measurement in air and in water. J Zoo Wildl Med 45 (1), 86-92 PubMed.
  • McGuire J L, Hernandez S M, Smith L L et al (2014) Safety and utility of an anesthetic protocol for the collection of biological samples from gopher tortoises. Wildl Society Bull 38 (1), 43-50 VetMedResource.
  • Selleri P, Di Girolamo N & Melidone R (2013) Cystoscopic sex identification of posthatchling chelonians. J Am Vet Med Assoc 242 (12), 1744-1750 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 338.
  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 1296.
  • West G, Heard D & Caulkett N (2014) Eds Zoo Animal and Wildlife Immobilization and Anesthesia. 2nd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 950.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate (2013) Veterinary Medicines Guidance Notes. Website: www.gov.uk.
  • Mader D R (2006) Ed Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 1242.
  • Girling S J & Raiti P (2004) BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. BSAVA, UK. pp 383.
  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 579.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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