Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Itraconazole

Synonym(s): Sporanox, Itrafungol

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Itraconazole.

Class of drug

  • Triazol antifungal.

Description

Chemical name

  • (±)-1-[(RS)-sec-butyl]-4-[p-[4-[p-[[(2R,4S)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-1,2,4 triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]methoxy]phenyl]-1-piperazinyl]phenyl]-∆2 1,2,4-riazolin-5-one.

Molecular formula

  • C35H38Cl2N8O4.

Molecular weight

  • 706.

Physical properties

  • White to slightly yellowish powder.
  • It is insoluble in water, very slightly soluble in alcohols, and freely soluble in dichloromethane.
  • Avoid compounding if possible.

Storage requirements

  • Store capsules at room temperature protected from light and moisture.
  • Oral solution should be stored at temperatures <26°C/78.8°F.
  • Avoid freezing.

Uses

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Indications

  • Aspergillosis, candidiasis, blastomycosis, coccidiomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, dermatophytoses and other systemic fungal infections.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Antacids, H2 antagonists and adsorbents may reduce the absorption of itraconazole.
  • Itraconazole may inhibit metabolism of many drugs such as antihistamines, oral hypoglycemics, antiepileptics, cisapride, corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin, ivermectin, digoxin and fentanyl, potentiating toxic effects.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Lindemann D M, Allender M C, Rzadkowska M et al (2017) Pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of voriconazole and itraconazole in healthy cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus) and Massasauga rattlesnakes (Sistrurus catenatus) with snake fungal disease. J Zoo Wildl Med 48 (3), 757-766 PubMed.
  • Schmidt-Ukaj S, Loncaric I, Spergser J et al (2016) Dermatomycosis in three central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) associated with Nannizziopsis chlamydospora. J Vet Diag Invest 28 (3), 319-322 PubMed.
  • Nogueira Brilhante R S, de Aragao Rodrigues P H, de Alencar L P et al (2015) Evidence of fluconazole-resistant Candida species in tortoises and sea turtles. Mycopathologia 180 (5-6), 421-426 PubMed.
  • Van Waeyenberghe L, Baert K, Pasmans F et al (2010) Voriconazole, a safe alternative for treating infections caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Med Mycol 48 (6), 880-885 PubMed.
  • Girling S J & Fraser M A (2009) Treatment of Aspergillus species infection in reptiles with itraconazole at metabolically scaled doses. Vet Rec 165 (2), 52-54 PubMed.
  • Bowman M R, Pare J A, Sigler L et al (2007) Deep fungal dermatitis in three inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii. Med Mycol 45 (4), 371-376 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 338.
  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 1296.
  • Mader D R (2006) Ed Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, UK. pp 1242.
  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 579.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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