Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Isoflurane

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Isoflurane.

Class of drug

  • Inhalational anesthetic.

Description

Chemical name

  • 2-chloro-2-(difluoromethoxy)-1,1,1-trifluoroethane.
  • 1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether.

Molecular formula

  • C3H2ClF5O.

Molecular weight

  • 184.49.

Physical properties

  • Volatile halogenated ether.
  • Structural isomer of enflurane.
  • Colorless, stable liquid.
  • Pungent ethereal odor.
  • Non-flammable.
  • Non-explosive.

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature.
  • Store away from direct heat and sunlight.
  • In original tight container.

Uses

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Indications

  • Induction and maintanance of anesthesia Anesthesia overview Anesthetic maintenance.
  • Induction just with isoflurane is not recommended in aquatic or semi-aquatic reptiles, as they can spend long periods of time without pulmonary respiration.
It does not provide analgesia.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Duration of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents is longer in isoflurane, compared with halothane-anesthetized animals.
  • Opioid agonists, benzodiazepines and nitrous oxide reduce the concentration of isoflurane required to achieve surgical anesthesia.

With diagnostic tests

  • Text here

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Gatson B J, Goe A & Granone T D (2017) Intramuscular epinephrine results in reduced anesthetic recovery time in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) undergoing isoflurane anesthesia. J Zoo Wildl Med 48 (1), 55-61 PubMed.
  • Jakobsen S L, Williams C J A & Wang T (2017) The influence of mechanical ventilation on physiological parameters in ball pythons (Python regius). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 207, 30-35 PubMed.
  • Odette O, Churgin S M & Sladky K K (2015) Anesthetic induction and recovery parameters in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps): comparison of isoflurane delivered in 100% oxygen versus 21% oxygen. J Zoo Wildl Med 46 (3), 534-539 PubMed.
  • Sladky K K & Mans C (2012) Clinical anesthesia in reptiles. J Exotic Pet Med 21 (1), 17-31 VetMedResource.
  • Barter L S, Hawkins M G, Brosnan R J et al (2006) Median effective dose of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane in green iguanas. Am J Vet Res 67 (3), 392-397 PubMed.
  • Brosnan R J, Pypendop B H, Barter L S et al (2006) Pharmacokinetics of inhaled anesthetics in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Am J Vet Res 67 (10), 1670-1674 PubMed.
  • Bertelsen M F, Mosley C A E, Crawshaw G J et al (2005) Minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in mechanically ventilated Dumeril monitors. J Am Vet Med Assoc 226 (7), 1098-1101 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 338.
  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Blackwell Publishing, USA. pp 1296.
  • Ramsey I et al (2011) Isoflurane. In: BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. 7th edn. BSAVA, UK.
  • Mader D R (2006) Ed Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 1242.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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