Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Halothane

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Halothane.

Class of drug

  • Inhalational general anesthetic.

Description

Chemical name

  • 2-Bromo-2-chloro-1,1-trifluoroethane.

Molecular formula

  • C2HBrClF3.

Molecular weight

  • 197.38.

Physical properties

  • Volatile liquid.

Storage requirements

  • Protect from light.
  • May corrode certain metals.

Uses

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Indications

  • Uncommonly used in reptiles.
  • It is now considerably less popular than isoflurane Isoflurane or sevoflurane Sevoflurane for reptile anesthesia.
  • While effective, other inhalant anesthetics are preferred, eg isoflurane, sevoflurane.
  • As an induction agent, it has been effective in kinosternid turtles (family Kinosternidae), but not in box turtles (Terrapene spp), sliders (Trachemys spp) or snapping turtles (Chelydra spp). This is indicative of the little reliability in reptiles of gaseous induction; in addition, these studies have been conducted without a vaporizer, injecting highly concentrated halothane in an anesthetic chamber, which can be dangerous. Effects with a vaporizer have been unreliable.
  • Potent and highly volatile so should be delivered only through a calibrated vaporizer.

Administration

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Pharmacokinetics

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Precautions

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Interactions

with other drugs

Epinephrine and thiobarbiturates
  • Increased risk of arrhythmia.
Opioid agonists, benzodiazepines, and nitrous oxide
  • Reduce concentration of halothane required to achieve surgical anesthesia.

Adverse Reactions

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Brannian R E, Kirk C & Williams D (1987) Anesthetic induction of kinosternid turtles with halothane. J Zoo Wildl Med 18 (2-3), 115-117 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Ramsey I (2014) BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. 8th edn. BSAVA, UK. ISBN: 9781905319657.
  • Girling S J & Raiti P (2004) BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. BSAVA, UK. pp 383.
  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 579.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate (2013) Veterinary Medicines Guidance Notes. Website: www.gov.uk.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

ADDED