Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Glycopyrrolate

Synonym(s): Glycopyrrolate bromide, Glycopyrronium bromide, Robinul, Glycostigmin, Acpan, Gastrodyn

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Glycopyrrolate.

Class of drug

  • Antimuscarinic agent.

Description

Chemical name

  • 3-[(cyclopentylhydroxyphenylacetyl)oxy]-1,1-dimethylpyrrolidinium bromide.

Molecular formula

  • C19H28BrNO3.

Molecular weight

  • 398.33.

Physical properties

  • Bitter tasting, practically odorless, white, crystalline powder.
  • One gram is soluble in 20 mL of water and 30 mL of alcohol.

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature.

Uses

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Indications

  • Very uncommonly used in reptiles.
  • Its administration has been reported in conjunction with neostigmine, to antagonize effects of rocuronim or gallamine (neuromuscular block).
  • Generally used only with profound or prolonged bradycardia.
  • Its use as a preanesthetic to reduce oral and respiratory secretion is not recommended. Use only when there is an indication that excessive secretion may produce a problem. As a general rule, reptiles produce little respiratory secretions.
  • It may not work in some species, eg green iguana, at reported dosages.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Alkaline drugs, eg barbiturates
  • When mixed a precipitate may form.
Antihistamines, benzodiazepines, prolonged corticosteroid use (may increase intraocular pressure), pethidine, phenothiazines, procainamide and quinidine
  • The adverse effects of antimuscarinics may be increased.
Nitrofurantoin, sympathomimetics and thiazide diuretics
  • Antimuscarinics may enhance the action.
Metoclopramide
  • Antimuscarinics may antagonize metoclopramide.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Kaufman  G E, Seymour R E, Bonner B B et al (2003) Use of rocuronium for endotracheal intubation of North American Gulf Coast box turtles. J Am Vet Med Assoc 222 (8), 1111-1115 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 338.
  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 1296.
  • Carpenter J W & Marion C J (2013) Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Elsevier Saunders, USA.
  • Girling S J & Raiti P (2004) BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. BSAVA, UK. ppp 383.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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