Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Gentamicin

Synonym(s): Gentamicin sulphate, Garasol, Gentaject, Garacin, Clinagel Vet, Easotic, Otomax, Tiacil

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Gentamicin.

Class of drug

  • Aminoglycoside antibiotic.

Description

Chemical name

  • 2-[4,6-diamino-3-[3-amino-6-[1-(methylamino)ethyl]oxan-2-yl]oxy-2-hydroxycyclohexyl]oxy-5-methyl-4-(methylamino)oxane-3,5-diol.

Molecular formula

  • C21H43N5O7.

Molecular weight

  • 477.59.

Physical properties

  • White to buff powder that is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol.

Storage requirements

  • Injection and oral solutions should be stored at room temperature.
  • Freezing or temperatures above 40°C/104°F should be avoided.

Uses

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Indications

  • The aminoglycosides as a class are more active against gram-negative bacteria, but some staphylococcal and streptococcal (fecalis) species are sensitive.
  • All obligate anaerobic bacteria and many hemolytic streptococci are resistant.
  • When used for 'blind' therapy of undiagnosed serious infections gentamicin is usually given in conjunction with a penicillin and/or metronidazole [Metronidazole].
  • Aminoglycosides are more active in an alkaline environment.
  • While still used in reptiles, the aminoglycoside amikacin Amikacin has become more popular. Gentamicin is more commonly reserved for cases where results from culture and sensitivity are available.
  • Good activity shown against gram-negatives isolated from reptiles, although resistance occurs relatively frequently. Gram positives from repitles are commonly resistant.
  • Microbial resistance is a concern, although many bacteria resistant to gentamicin may be susceptible to amikacin.
  • Ineffective in low oxygen sites, eg abscesses, exudates, because oxygen rich environment is required to be effective.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Nephrotoxic, ototoxic or neurotoxic agents, eg amphotericin B, cisplatin, frusemide, methoxyflurane
  • Increased risk of toxicity.
Ticarcilin
  • Synergism may occur.
Non-depolarizing muscle relaxants (atracurium, pancuronium, tubocurarine, vecuronium)
  • May be enhanced by aminoglycosides.

with diagnostic tests

  • Gentamicin serum concentrations may be falsely decrease if the patient has been treated with beta-lactams or if the serum has been stored prior analysis.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Chung T H, Yi S W, Kim B S et al (2017) Identification and antibiotic resistance profiling of bacterial isolates from septicaemic soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis). Veterinarni Medicina 62 (3), 169-177 VetMedResource.
  • Rasmussen C, Allender M C, Phillips C A et al (2017) Multi-drug resistance patterns of enteric bacteria in two populations of free-ranging Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). J Zoo Wildl Med 48 (3), 708-715 PubMed.
  • Shin D M, Hossain S, Wimalasena S H M P et al (2017) Antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of Edwardsiella tarda isolated from pet turtles. Pakistan Vet J 37 (1), 85-89 VetMedResource.
  • Dipineto L, Russo T P, Calabria M et al (2014) Oral flora of Python regius kept as pets. Lett Appl Microbiol 58 (5), 462-465 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 338.
  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 1296.
  • Mader D R (2006) Ed Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 1242.
  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 579.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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