Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Furosemide

Synonym(s): Frusemide, Lasix, Dimazon, Frusecare, Frusol, Frusedale, Disal, Furotabs, Furoject, Furocot

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Furosemide.

Class of drug

  • Loop diuretic.

Description

Chemical name

  • 4-chloro-N-[2-furylmethyl]-5-sulfa-moylanthranilic acid.

Molecular formula

  • C12H11ClN2O5S.

Molecular weight

  • 330.74.

Physical properties

  • Odorless, practically tasteless, white to slightly yellow, fine, crystalline powder.
  • Practically insoluble in water, sparingly soluble in alcohol and freely soluble in alkaline hydroxides.

Storage requirements

  • Tablets: store in light-resistant, well-closed containers at room temperature.
  • Oral solution: room temperature and protected from light and freezing.
  • Injection: room temperature. A precipitate may form if the injection is refrigerated, but will resolve when warmed (it does not alter potency).

Uses

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Indications

  • Used in the management of:
    • Congestive cardiac failure .
    • Pulmonary edema.
    • Non-cardiogenic ascites or edema.
    • Hypercalciuric nephropathy.
    • Acute renal failure.
    • Hyperkalemia.
    • Hypertension.
    • Urolithiasis.
    • Hyperuricemia.

Congestive heart failure

  • There is evidence, although yet to be proven, that furosemide may acutely increase venous capacitance. This would be of benefit in the management of congestive cardiac failure.
  • The use of chronic diuretic monotherapy in the management of cardiac failure should be avoided, as patients receiving diuretics alone may deteriorate more rapidly than those receiving ACE inhibitors or digoxin concurrently.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • If used concommitantly with corticosteroids or amphotericin B may increase the chance of hypokalemia.
  • Use with NSAIDs may predispose to nephrotoxicity, particularly in patients with poor renal perfusion.
ACE inhibitors and digoxin
  • Combination of furosemide, ACE inhibitor and digoxin with a sodium restricted diet may be associated with mild hyperkalemia.
Theophylline
  • May be enhanced when given with furosemide.
Aminoglycosides
  • Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity associated with the aminoglycosides may be potentiated.
Digoxin
  • Furosemide may induce hypokalemia, thereby increasing the risk of digoxin toxicity.
Tubocurarine
  • May inhibit the muscle relaxation qualities.
Suxamethonium
  • Effects of suxamethonium may be increased.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 338.
  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell. pp 1296.
  • Carpenter J W & Marion C J (2013) Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Saunders, USA.
  • Mayer J & Donnelly T M (2013) Clinical Veterinary Advisor: Birds and Exotic Pets. Elsevier, USA. pp 752.
  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R, Meyer J (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 579.
  • Girling S J & Raiti P (2004) BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. BSAVA, UK. pp 383.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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