Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Fluconazole

Synonym(s): Diflucan

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Fluconazole.

Class of drug

  • Triazole antifungal agent.

Description

Chemical name

  • 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-1,3-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propan-2-ol.

Molecular formula

  • C13H12F2N6O.

Molecular weight

  • 306.27.

Physical properties

  • White crystalline powder.

Storage requirements

  • Store in tight containers below 30°C/86°F.

Uses

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Indications

  • Effective against systemic mycoses caused by Blastomyces, Candida, Cryptococcus, Coccidiodes and Histoplasma infections.
  • 30% of Candida species isolated from chelonia are resistant to fluconazole.
  • Variably effective against filamentous fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium).
  • Commonly used for CNS, oral and urinary infections.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Fluconazole may increase effects of buspirone, cisapride, corticosteroids, fentanyl, midazolam, rifampin, phenytoin, theophylline, tricyclic antidepressants, antidiabetic agents, vincristine, warfarin, NSAIDs, cyclophosphamide, and cyclosporin.
Amphotericin B
  • It may have antagonistic effects when used with fluconazole Amphotericin B.
Diuretics
  • May increase fluconazole levels.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Nogueira Brilhante R S, de Aragao Rodrigues P H, de Alencar L P et al (2015) Evidence of fluconazole-resistant Candida species in tortoises and turtles. Mycopathologia 180 (5-6), 421-426 PubMed.
  • Innis C J, Ceresia M L, Merigo C et al (2012) Single-dose pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime and fluconazole during concurrent clinical use in cold-stunned Kemp’s ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii). J Vet Pharmacol Therap 35 (1), 82-89 PubMed.
  • Mallo K M, Harms C A, Lewbart G A et al (2002) Pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) after single intravenous and subcutaneous injections, and multiple subcutaneous injections. J Zoo Wildl Med 33 (1), 29-35 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 1296.
  • Carpenter J W & Marion C J (2013) Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Saunders, USA.
  • Mader D R (2006) Ed Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 1242.
  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 579.
  • Tennant B (1999) Small Animal Formulary. 3rd edn. BSAVA, UK.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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