Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Enrofloxacin

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Enrofloxacin.

Class of drug

  • Fluoroquinolone antibiotic.

Description

Chemical name

  • 1-cyclopropyl-7-(4-ethylpiperazin-1-yl)-6-fluoro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid.

Molecular formula

  • C19H22FN3O3.

Molecular weight

  • 359.40.

Physical properties

  • Pale yellow, crystalline powder.
  • Slightly soluble in water.

Storage requirements

  • Tablets should be stored in tight containers at temperature less than 30°C/86°F.
  • Protect from direct sunlight.
  • Injectable forms should be kept at room temperature and should not be refrigerated or frozen.

Uses

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Indications

  • Commonly used to treat bacterial infections in reptiles.
  • Good activity against many gram negative bacilli and cocci that are commonly involved in reptile infections, particularly Salmonella spp.
  • Activity against some gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus.
  • Good activity against Chlamydia, Rickettsia, Mycoplasma and Mycobacterium.
  • Ineffective to treat anaerobic infections.
  • Resistance seen in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter and enterococci.
  • The fluoroquinolones are highly lipophilic drugs which attain high concentrations within the cells of many tissues and are particularly effective in the management of soft tissue, urogenital and skin infections.
  • Enrofloxacin is ineffective to treat infections in reptiles caused by Devriesea agamarum.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Adsorbents and antacids containing cations (Mg, Al)
  • May bind to enrofloxacin and prevent its absorption.
Sucralfate and zinc salts
Probenecid/cisapride
  • Blocks the tubular secretion of enrofloxacin and may increase its blood level and half-life.
NSAIDs
  • In man concurrent use of enrofloxacin and NSAIDs potentiates adverse CNS effects in epileptic patients.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Ducrotte-Tassel A, Kirilov P, Salvi J P et al (2017) Detection of enrofloxacin after single-dose percutaneous administration in Python regius, Boa constrictor imperator and Acrantophis dumerili. J Exotic Pet Med 26 (4), 263-269 VetMedResource.
  • da Silva Sobrinho F B, de Sa M C A, Gouveia G V et al (2017) [Isolation and determination of antimicrobials sensitivity and resistance of bacterial strains present in the cloaca of Trachemys scripta elegans (Wied, 1839) raised in captivity in Petrolina/PE, Brazil]. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 37 (3), 261-268 VetMedResource.
  • Waxman S, Paula Prados A, Julio de Lucas J et al (2014) Pharmacokinetic behavior of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in Urutu pit vipers (Bothrops alternatus) after intramuscular administration. J Zoo Wildl Med 45 (1), 78-85 PubMed.
  • Giorgi M, Rota S, Giorgi T et al (2013) Blood concentrations of enrofloxacin and the metabolite ciprofloxacin in yellow-bellied slider turtles (Trachemys scripta scripta) after a single intracoelomic injection of enrofloxacin. J Exotic Pet Med 22 (2), 192-199 JExoticPetMed.
  • Hellebuyck T, Pasmans F, Haesebrouck F et al (2009) Designing a successful antimicrobial treatment against Devriesea agamarum infections in lizards. Vet Microbiol 139 (1-2), 189-192 PubMed.
  • Mitchell M A (2006) Enrofloxacin. J Exotic Pet Med 15 (1), 66-69 JExoticPetMed.
  • Jacobson E, Gronwall R, Maxwell L et al (2005) Plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin after single-dose oral administration in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). J Zoo Wildl Med 36 (4), 628-634 PubMed.
  • Young L A, Schumacher J, Papich M G et al (1997) Disposition of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin after intravascular injection in juvenile Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus). J Zoo Wildl Med 28 (1), 71-79 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 338.
  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 1296.
  • Ramsey I (2014) BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. 8th edn. BSAVA, UK. ISBN: 9781905319657.
  • Carpenter J W & Marion C J (2013) Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Saunders, USA.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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