Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Doxycycline

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Doxycycline.

Class of drug

  • Lipid-soluble tetracycline antibiotic.

Description

Chemical name

  • (4S,4aR,5S,5aR,6R,12aR)-4-(dimethylamino)-1,5,10,11,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-3,12-dioxo-4a,5,5a,6-tetrahydro-4H-tetracene-2-carboxamide.

Molecular formula

  • C22H24N2O8.

Molecular weight

  • 444.44.

Physical properties

  • Available in hyclate, calcium and monohydrate salts.
  • Hyclate: used in the injectable dosage form and in oral tablets and capsules:
    • Also known as doxycycline HCl.
    • Yellow, crystalline powder.
    • Soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol.
  • Monohydrate: used in the oral powder for reconstitution:
    • Yellow, crystalline powder.
    • Very slightly soluble in water and sparingly soluble in alcohol.
  • Calcium salt: found in the oral syrup.

Storage requirements

  • Tablets and capsules should be stored in tight, light resistant containers, at room temperature.
  • The hyclate injection, when reconstituted to up to 1 mg/mL may be stored refrigerated for 72 h.
  • Frozen reconstituted solutions (10 mg/mL) are stable for at least 2 months if kept at -20°C/-4°F.
  • If stored at room temperature, they are stable for 12-48 h.

Uses

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Indications

  • It is the tetracycline of choice when tetracyclines are indicated.
  • Doxycycline is only moderately effective for most bacteria (gram-negative) commonly involved in reptilian infections; therefore, other antibiotics are recommended as a first line of treatment.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Antacids, calcium, magnesium and iron salts
  • Absorption of doxycycline reduced.
Phenobarbitone, phenytoin and primidone
  • Increase the metabolism of doxycycline thus decreasing the plasma levels.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Dipineto L, Russo T P, Calabria M et al (2014) Oral flora of Python regius kept as pets. Lett Applied Microbiol 58 (5), 462-465 PubMed.
  • Rinaldi M L (2014) Therapeutic review: doxycycline. J Exotic Pet Med 23 (1), 107-112 VetMedResource.
  • da Silva Sobrinho F B, de Sa M C A, Gouveia G V et al (2017) [Isolation and determination of antimicrobials sensitivity and resistance of bacterial strains present in the cloaca of Trachemys scripta elegans (Wied, 1839) raised in captivity in Petrolina/PE, Brazil]. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 37 (3), 261-268 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 1296.
  • Carpenter J W & Marion C J (2013) Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Saunders, USA.
  • Mader D R (2006) Ed Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 1242.
  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 579.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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