Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Doxapram

Synonym(s): Dopram-V, Dopram

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Doxapram hydrochloride.

Class of drug

  • Central nervous system (CNS)/respiratory stimulant.

Description

Chemical name

  • 1-ethyl-4-[2-(4- morpholinyl)ethyl]-3,3-diphenyl-2-pyrrolidinone monohydrochloride, monohydrate.

Molecular formula

  • C24H31ClN2O2 x H2O.

Molecular weight

  • 432.99.

Physical properties

  • White to off-white, odorless, crystalline powder.
  • Soluble in water, sparingly soluble in alcohol and practically insoluble in ether.

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature.
  • Avoid freezing.

Uses

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Indications

  • Doxapram may be used to stimulate respiration in certain types of peri-operative respiratory depression and to speed awakening and reflexes after anesthesia.
  • Doxapram may be given in large crocodiles when drugs such as succinylcholine are used.
  • Doxapram may be given to differentiate central (anesthetic overdose) from peripheral (neuromuscular blockade) causes of respiratory depression in animals given non-depolarizing muscle relaxants.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Hypertension may occur with sympathomimetics.
  • The use of theophylline concurrently with doxapram may cause increased CNS stimulation.
  • As doxapram may stimulate the release of epinephrine [Epinephrine], its use within 10 min of the administration of anesthetic agents that sensitize the myocardium to catecholamines, eg halothane [Halothane], enflurane, should be avoided.
  • Doxapram may mask the effects of muscle-relaxant drugs.
  • Doxapram is compatible with 5% dextrose or normal saline, but is incompatible with aminophylline Aminophylline, sodium bicarbonate and thiopentone.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Heggem B (2011) Doxapram. J Exotic Pet Med 20 (3), 237-240 ExoticPetMed.
  • Skovgaard N, Crossley D & Wang T (2016) Low cost of pulmonary ventilation in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) stimulated with doxapram. J Exp Biol 219 (7), 933-936 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK.
  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 1296.
  • Carpenter J W & Marion C J (2013) Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Saunders, USA.
  • Mader D R (2006) Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 1242.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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