Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Diazepam

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Diazepam.

Class of drug

  • Benzodiazepine.

Description

Chemical name

  • 7-chloro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-3H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one.

Molecular formula

  • C16H13ClN2O.

Molecular weight

  • 284.74.

Physical properties

  • White to yellow, practically odorless, crystalline powder.
  • 1 g is soluble in 333 mL of water and 25 mL of alcohol.

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature.
  • The injectable solution should not be frozen and should be protected from light.
  • The oral forms should be kept in tight containers and protected from light.
  • It may adsorb plastic, so it should no be stored drawn up into plastic syringes.

Uses

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Indications

  • Premedicant; less commonly used than midazolam Midazolam.
  • Anticonvulsant. In reptiles, it can be used to control seizures from toxic neuropathies, eg insecticides such as organophosphates and carbamates.
  • Anxiolytic.
  • Muscle relaxant.
  • Anesthesia Anesthesia overview.
  • It is now uncommonly used in anesthetic protocols. The benzodiazepine midazolam is preferred for this purpose due to a much better intramuscular absorption.

Administration

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Pharmacokinetics

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Precautions

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Interactions

with other drugs

Cimetidine, erythromycin and omeprazole.
  • These drugs inhibit the metabolism of diazepam and may cause increased plasma concentrations.
Beta-1 antagonists
  • Duration of action of diazepam may be prolonged.
  • Hypotension may be enhanced if diazepam is used in conjunction with propranolol.
Antihistamines or opioid analgesics
  • Sedative effect may be enhanced.
Digoxin
  • The effects of digoxin may be increased.

Adverse Reactions

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Adel M, Sadegh A B, Arizza V et al (2017) Anesthetic efficacy of ketamine-diazepam, ketamine-xylazine, and ketamine-acepromazine in Caspian pond turtles (Mauremys caspica). Indian J Pharmacol 49 (1), 93-93 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 338.
  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 1296.
  • Fleming G J (2014) Crocodiles (Crocodiles, Alligators,  Caima, Gharial). In: Zoo Animal and Wildlife Immobilization and Anesthesia. 2nd edn. Eds: West G, Heard D & Caulkett N. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 325-336.
  • Carpenter J W & Marion C J (2013) Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Saunders, USA.
  • Mader D R (2006) Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 1242.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

ADDED