Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Dexamethasone

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Dexamethasone.

Class of drug

  • Long acting corticosteroid.

Description

Chemical name

  • (8S,9R,10S,11S,13S,14S,16R,17R)-9-fluoro-11,17-dihydroxy-17-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-10,13,16-trimethyl-6,7,8,11,12,14,15,16-octahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one.

Molecular formula

  • C22H29FO5.

Molecular weight

  • 392.46.

Physical properties

  • Odorless, white to practically white, crystalline powder.
  • Practically insoluble in water and sparingly soluble in alcohol.
  • Dexamethasone sodium phosphate occurs as an odorless or having a slight odor, white to slightly yellow, hygroscopic powder:
    • 1 g is soluble in about 2 mL of water.
    • It is slightly soluble in alcohol.

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature; dexamethasone is heat labile.
  • Dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection should be protected from light.
  • Dexamethasone tablets should be stored in well-closed containers.

Uses

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Indications

  • Corticoids are infrequently used in reptiles to treat:
    • Inflammation.
    • Used in combination with other drugs to treat cases of lymphoma (prednisone is preferred).

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

With other drugs

  • Amphotericin B Amphotericin B or potassium-depleting diuretics (furosemide Furosemide, thiazides)
  • Increased risk of hypokalemia with these drugs.
Insulin
  • May antagonize effects of insulin.
Phenobarbital or phenytoin
  • These drugs may accelerate the metabolism of glucocorticoids.
Non-steroidal inflammatory drugs
  • Increased risk of gastrointestinal ulceration if used concurrently.

With diagnostic tests

Urine glucose levels
  • May be increased.
Liver
  • Elevated liver enzymes.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 1296.
  • Carpenter J W & Marion C J (2013) Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Saunders, USA.
  • Girling S J & Raiti P (2004) BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. BSAVA, UK. pp 383.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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