Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Clindamycin

Synonym(s): Cleomycin, Cleocin

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Clindamycin.

Class of drug

  • Lincosamide antibiotic.

Description

Chemical name

  • (2S-trans)-methyl 7-chloro-6,7,8-trideoxy-6-[[(1-methyl-4-propyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)carbonyl]amino]-1-thio-L-threo-alpha-D-galacto-octopyranoside.

Molecular formula

  • C18H22ClN2O5S.

Molecular weight

  • 425.

Physical properties

  • Available as the hydrochloride hydrate, phosphate ester, and palmitate hydrochloride:
    • Hydrochloride: white to practically white, crystalline powder.
    • Phosphate: white to off-white, hygroscopic crystalline powder.
    • Palmitate: white to off-white amorphous powder.
  • All forms are soluble in water.
  • Multi-colored capsules.

Storage requirements

  • Oral powder and solution should be stored at room temperature.
  • After reconstitution, the palmitate oral solution should not be refrigerated or thickening may occur.
  • The veterinary oral solution should be stored at room temperature and has an extended shelf life.
  • Clindamycin phosphate injection should be stored at room temperature. If refrigerated or frozen, crystals may form, which resolubolize upon warming.

Uses

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Indications

  • Gram-positive infections including penicillin-resistant Staphylococci.
  • Many anaerobes.
  • Improved bone penetration over other antibiotics.
  • Due to most infections in reptiles are caused by gram-negative bacteria, clindamycin is not commonly used in reptile patients. May be of interest in cases of osteomyelitis or abscesses, or when culture and sensitivity indicates its use.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Cross-resistance
  • Complete cross-resistance between lincomycin and clindamycin.
  • Partial cross-resistance with erythromycin.
Non-depolarizing muscle relaxants, eg tubocurarine
  • May be increased by clindamycin.
Neostigmine and pyridostigmine
  • See also neostigmine [Neostigmine].
  • May be antagonized by clindamycin.
Erythromycin
  • Antagonize each other's effectsin vitro; clinical significance unknown.

with diagnostic tests

  • In mammals, slight increases in liver enzymes may occur.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 1296.
  • Carpenter J W & Marion C J (2013) Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Elsevier Saunders, USA. pp 564.
  • Mader D R (2006) Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 1242.
  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 579.
  • Girling S J & Raiti P (2004) BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. BSAVA, UK. pp 383.
  • Tennant B (1999) Small Animal Formulary. 3rd edn. BSAVA, UK.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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