Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Chloramphenicol

Synonym(s): Chloramphenicol palmitate, Chloramphenicol succinate

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Chloramphenicol palmitate.
  • Chloramphenicol succinate.

Class of drug

  • Bacteriostatic antibiotic (bactericidal at higher concentrations or against very susceptible organisms).

Description

Chemical name

  • Palmitate: [(2R,3R)-2-[(2,2-dichloroacetyl)amino]-3-hydroxy-3-(4-nitrophenyl)propyl] hexadecanoate.
  • Succinate: 4-[(2R,3R)-2-(2,2-dichloroacetamido)-3-hydroxy-3-(4-nitrophenyl)propoxy]-4-oxobutanoic acid.

Molecular formula

  • Palmitate: C27H42Cl2N2O6.
  • Succinate: C15H16Cl2N2O8.

Molecular weight

  • Palmitate: 561.54.
  • Succinate: 423.19.

Physical properties

  • Fine, white to yellow plates of needle-like crystals.
  • Freely soluble in alcohol and 2.5 mg are soluble in 1 mL of water at 25°C/77°F.
  • Chloramphenicol sodium succinate is a white to light yellow powder.

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature.
  • After reconstitution for injection, the solution is stable for 30 days at room temperature, and 6 months if frozen.
  • Discard when it becomes cloudy.

Uses

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Indications

  • Uncommonly used in reptiles as a systemic antibiotic.
  • The ophthalmic ointment may be used for eye infections.
  • Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, effective against gram-positives, gram-negatives, anaerobes, and Chlamydia spp, Mycoplasma spp and Rickettsia spp.
  • Numerous reports of resistance to chloramphenicol have been described in bacteria isolated from reptiles, particularly involving Pseudomonas spp.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Anticonvulsants (pentobarbitone, phenobarbitone and phenytoin).
  • Chloramphenicol is an irreversible inhibitor of hepatic cytochrome P450 dependent enzymes and so increases the plasma levels of these drugs, pentobarbital, oral hypoglycemic agents.
  • Recovery from the inhibitory effects requires synthesis of new liver enzymes and can take up to 3 weeks.
Iron salts and Vitamin B12
  • Decreased hematologic response may be seen.
Rifampicin
  • Accelerates the metabolism of chloramphenicol, thus decreasing serum levels.
  • Chloramphenicol may inhibit activity of bactericidial antimicrobials such as aminoglycosides and beta-lactams.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Rasmussen C, Allender M C, Phillips C A et al (2017) Multi-drug resistance patterns of enteric bacteria in two populations of free-ranging Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). J Zoo Wildl Med 48 (3), 708-715 VetMedResource.
  • Sylvester W R B, Amadi V, Pinckney R et al (2014) Prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp from wild and domestic green iguanas (Iguana iguana) in Grenada, West Indies. Zoonoses Public Health 61 (6), 436-441 PubMed.
  • Wimalasena S H M P, Shin G W, Hossain S et al (2017) Potential enterotoxicity and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Aeromonas species isolated from pet turtles and their environment. J Vet Med Sci 79 (5), 921-926 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK.
  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 1296.
  • Carpenter J W & Marion C J (2013) Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Elsevier Saunders, USA. pp 564.
  • Mader D R (2006) Ed Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 1242.
  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 579.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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