Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Ceftazidime

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Ceftazidime

Class of drug

  • Antibiotic.

Description

Chemical name

  • (6R,7R,Z)-7-(2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-(2-carboxypropan-2-yloxyimino)acetamido)-8-oxo-3-(pyridinium-1-ylmethyl)-5-thia-1-aza-bicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate.

Molecular formula

  • C22H22N6O7S2.

Molecular weight

  • 546.58.

Physical properties

  • White to cream-colored crystalline powder.
  • Slightly soluble in water (5 mg/mL) and insoluble in alcohol, chloroform and ether.

Storage requirements

  • It should be stored at room temperature and protected from light.
  • Once reconstituted, the solution retains potency for 24 h at room temperature and 7 days when refrigerated.
  • Solutions frozen in the original glass vial after reconstitution with sterile water are stable for 3 months when stored at –20°C/-4°F. Seems as effective when frozen in plastic syringes. Once thawed, they should not be re-frozen. Thawed solutions are stable for 8 h at room temperature and 4 days when refrigerated.

Uses

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Indications

  • Good activity against Pseudomonas spp, Salmonella spp and Devriesea agamarum among other gram-negatives.
  • Use reserved for patients with acute sepsis or serious infections where cultures are pending and the animal is not a good candidate for intensive aminoglycoside therapy (pre-existing renal dysfunction).
  • Cephalosporins are particularly useful for the treatment of susceptible renal infections.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Antibiotics
  • The bactericidal activity of cephalosporins may be affected by the concomitant use of bacteriostatic agent, eg tetracycline, erythromycin.
  • There may be an increased risk of nephrotoxicity if cephalosporins are used with amphotericin Amphotericin B or loop diuretics, eg furosemide [Furosemide]; monitor renal function.
  • Probenecid reduces the excretion of cephalosporins.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bertelloni F, Chemaly M, Cerri D et al (2016) Salmonella infection in healthy pet reptiles: bacteriological isolation and study of some pathogenic characters. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 63 (2), 203-216 PubMed.
  • Sylvester W R B, Amadi V, Pinckney R et al (2014) Prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp from wild and domestic green iguanas (Iguana iguana) in Grenada, West Indies. Zoonoses Public Health 61 (6), 436-441 PubMed.
  • Lukac M, Horvatek-Tomic D & Prukner-Radovcic E (2013) Findings of Devriesea agamarum associated infections in spiny-tailed lizards (Uromastyx spp) in Croatia. J Zoo Wildl Med 44 (2), 430-434 PubMed.
  • Innis C J, Ceresia M L, Merigo C et al (2012) Single-dose pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime and fluconazole during concurrent clinial use in cold-stunned Kemp’s ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii). J Vet Pharmacol Therap 35 (1), 82-89 PubMed.
  • Stamper M A, Papich M G, Lewbart G A et al (1999) Pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) after single intravenous and intramuscular administration. J Zoo Wildl Med 30 (1), 32-35 PubMed.
  • Lawrence K, Muggleton P W & Needham J R (1984) Preliminary study on the use of ceftazidime, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic, in snakes. Res Vet Sci 36 (1), 16-20 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Blackwell Publishing, USA. pp 1296.
  • Carpenter J W & Marion C J (2013) Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Elsevier Saunders, USA. pp 564.
  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Wiley-Blackwell, UK. pp 579.
  • Tennant B (1999) Small Animal Formulary. 3rd edn. BSAVA, UK.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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