Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Cefotaxime

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Cefotaxime.

Class of drug

  • Third generation cephalosporin antibiotic.

Description

Chemical name

  • (6R,7R,Z)-3-(Acetoxymethyl)-7-(2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-(methoxyimino)acetamido)-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid.

Molecular formula

  • C16H17N5O7S2.

Molecular weight

  • 455.47.

Physical properties

  • Odorless, white to off-white crystalline powder.
  • Sparingly soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol.

Storage requirements

  • Sterile powder for injection should be stored at temperatures of less than 30°C/86°F and protected from light.
  • Darkening may indicate loss of potency.

Uses

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Indications

  • Many gram-negative infections (not Pseudomonas spp). Gram-negative infections are predominant in reptiles.
  • Use reserved for patients suffering from acute sepsis or serious infections where cultures are pending and the animal is not a good candidate for intensive aminoglycoside therapy (pre-existing renal dysfunction).
  • Cephalosporins are particularly useful for the treatment of susceptible renal infections.
  • Other antibiotics may be better to treat Salmonella.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • The bactericidal activity of cephalosporins may be affected by the concomitant use of bacteriostatic agents, eg tetracycline, erythromycin.
  • There may be an increased risk of nephrotoxicity if cephalosporins are used with amphotericin Amphotericin B or loop diuretics; monitor renal function.
  • Probenecid reduces the excretion of cephalosporins.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Wimalasena S H M P, Shin G W, Hossain S et al (2017) Potential enterotoxicity and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Aeromonas species isolated from pet turtles and their environment. J Vet Med Sci 79 (5), 921-926 PubMed.
  • Sylvester W R B, Amadi V, Pinckney R et al (2014) Prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp from wild and domestic green iguanas (Iguana iguana) in Grenada, West Indies. Zoonoses Pub Health 61 (6), 436-441 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, USA. pp 1296.
  • Tennant B (1999) Small Animal Formulary. 3rd edn. BSAVA, UK.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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