Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Butorphanol

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Butorphanol.

Class of drug

  • Opioid analgesic.
  • Antitussive.
  • Anti-emetic.

Description

Chemical name

  • (4bR,8aR,9S)-11-(cyclobutylmethyl)-6,7,8,8a,9,10-hexahydro-5H-9,4b-(epiminoethano)phenanthrene-3,8a-diol.

Molecular formula

  • C21H29NO2.

Molecular weight

  • 327.47.

Physical properties

  • White, crystalline powder.
  • Sparingly soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol.

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature and protected from bright light.
  • Do not freeze.

Uses

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Indications

  • Similar to buprenorphine Buprenorphine, butorphanol has no analgesic effect in reptiles, even when used at doses as high as 20-30 mg/kg, therefore there is no indication for its use in reptiles.

Administration

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Pharmacokinetics

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Precautions

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Interactions

with other drugs

  • The depressant activity of butorphanol may be potentiated by barbiturate anesthetics, phenothiazines and tranquilizers.
  • Concomitant use with metoclopramide [Metoclopramide] may lead to antagonism as each drug has opposing effects on gastrointestinal motility. In practice this is probably of little clinical significance.

Adverse Reactions

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Leal W P, Carregaro A B, Bressan T F et al (2017) Antinoceptive efficacy of intramuscular administration of morphine sulfate and butorphanol tartrate in tegus (Salvator merianae). Am J Vet Res 78 (9), 1019-1024 PubMed.
  • Fleming G J & Robertson S A (2012) Assessments of thermal antinoceptive effects of butorphanol and human observer effect on quantitative evaluation of analgesia in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Am J Vet Res 73 (10), 1507-1511 PubMed.
  • Sladky K K & Mans C (2012) Clinical analgesia in reptiles. J Exotic Pet Med 21 (2), 158-167 SciDirect.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 1296.
  • Ramsey I (2014) BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. 8th edn. BSAVA, UK. ISBN: 9781905319657.
  • Carpenter J W & Marion C J (2013) Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Elsevier Saunders, USA. pp 564.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate (2013) Veterinary Medicines Guidance Notes. Website: www.gov.uk.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

ADDED